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Species Kricogonia lyside - Lyside Sulphur - Hodges#4235

Lyside Sulphur - Kricogonia lyside lyside - Kricogonia lyside Upperside of Lyside Sulphur - Kricogonia lyside Lyside Sulphur - Kricogonia lyside sulphur - Kricogonia lyside Lyside Sulphur - Kricogonia lyside UnknownButterfly6 - Kricogonia lyside Lyside Sulphur - Kricogonia lyside
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Papilionoidea (Butterflies and Skippers)
Family Pieridae (Whites, Sulphurs, Yellows)
Subfamily Coliadinae (Sulphurs and Yellows)
Genus Kricogonia
Species lyside (Lyside Sulphur - Hodges#4235)
Hodges Number
4235
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Orig. Comb: Colias lyside Godart 1819
Numbers
1 Nearctic sp. (second sp. in Cuba)
Identification
Extremely variable in both size and appearance. Varies from white to yellow. (1)
Prominent whitened vein running through hindwing may be visible:
Also note yellow at base of forewings
Range
Common in SE AZ and south Texas, but ranges CA-LA-NE-CO, FL (BAMONA Map) / Gr. Antilles / Mex. to Venezuela
Habitat
Tropical and subtropical scrub (1)
Season
Mainly Apr-Nov in south Texas (1)
Food
Texas: Guayacan - Guaiacum angustifolium (=Porlieria angustifolia) (Zygophyllaceae) - Range - USDA Plants Database
Florida: Guaiacum sanctum - Range - USDA Plants Database
Arizona: Host unknown (2)
Life Cycle
Able to go from egg to adult in 13 days in the heat of the summer! (3)
Life Cycle Study - Jan Dauphin, The Rio Grande Valley's Nature Site
Life History Photos - Berry Nall's Butterfly Photos
Remarks
This species, along with the American Snout, is renowned for frequent mass flights across south Texas and less so in the southwest. These mass movements appear to be induced by an extensive drought followed by heavy, widespread rains which induce the production of fresh leaves on the butterfly's host plant. The drought evidently serves to knock back the insect predators and parasites so the butterfly caterpillars enjoy an unusually high survivorship. See review by Gilbert (1985).
Print References
Byers, G.W. 1971. A migration of Kricogonia castalia (Pieridae) in northern Mexico. Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 25(2): 124-125. Full PDF
Clench, H.K. 1965. A migration of Libytheana and Kricogonia in southern Texas. Journal Lepidopterists’ Society 19(4): 223-224. Full PDF
Gilbert, L.E. 1985. Ecological factors which influence migratory behavior in two butterflies of the semi-arid shrublands of South Texas. Pp. 724-747 in: M.A. Rankin. (editor). Migration: Mechanisms and Adaptive Significance. Contributions in Marine Science Supplement Vol. 27. Marine Science Institute, Port Aransas. (4)
Howe, W.H. 1964. Migration of Kricogonia lyside in Mexico (Pieridae). Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 18(1): 26. Full PDF
Welling, E.C. 1973. A massive migration of Kricogonia (Pieridae) in Campeche, Mexico. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 27(2): 154-155. Full PDF
Internet References
Works Cited
1.Butterflies Through Binoculars: The West : A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Western North America (Butterflies and Others Thr
Jeffrey Glassberg. 2001. Oxford University Press.
2.Butterflies of Arizona: A Photographic Guide
Stewart et al. 2001. West Coast Lady Press, Arcata, CA. ii + 415 pp.
3.Caterpillars in the Field and Garden: A Field Guide to the Butterfly Caterpillars of North America
Thomas J. Allen, James P. Brock, Jeffrey Glassberg. 2005. Oxford University Press.
4.Ecological factors which influence migratory behavior in two butterflies of the semi-arid shrublands of South Texas.
Gilbert, L.E. 1985. Marine Science Institute, Port Aransas. 27: 724-747.