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Species Lethe appalachia - Appalachian Brown - Hodges#4569

Appalachian Brown - Lethe appalachia Brown--Appalachian or Eyed? - Lethe appalachia - male Appalachian Brown - Lethe appalachia Appalachian Brown?  - Lethe appalachia possible wood nymph butterfly? - Lethe appalachia Appalachian Brown caterpillar - Lethe appalachia BugGuide gathering Satyr - Lethe appalachia Lethe appalachia  - Lethe appalachia
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Papilionoidea (Butterflies and Skippers)
Family Nymphalidae (Brush-footed Butterflies)
Subfamily Satyrinae (Satyrs, Morphos and Owls)
Tribe Satyrini (Alpines, Arctics, Nymphs and Satyrs)
Genus Lethe (Pearly-eyes, Tree Browns, etc.)
Species appalachia (Appalachian Brown - Hodges#4569)
Hodges Number
4569
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Lethe appalachia (1).
Numbers
Two subspecies: the nominate subspecies and S. a. leeuwi; only subspecies leeuwi is found in Canada.
Numbers vary from scarce to common, but is never seen in abundance like the Eyed Brown.
Size
wingspan 39-57 mm
Identification
Adult: wings medium brown. Lower side of forewing with the two end eyespots larger than the middle two; spots may not touch. Dark line inside the hindwing row spot is sinuous or gently curving (not zigzagged, as it is in the Eyed Brown).

Larva: very similar to the Eyed Brown, but the red on the head is only on the horns.
Range
Minnesota through southern Ontario & Quebec to Maine, south through the Appalachians and coastal plain to Florida, west to Mississippi.
Habitat
Wooded wet swamps, wet sedge areas near wood edges, and along slow-moving streams. Often wanders in small numbers throughout wooded areas, and is sometimes seen in dry woods, far from any wet area.
Season
Adults fly from late June to August or September in the north (one brood); June to October in the south (two broods).
Food
Larvae feed on leaves of sedges: Carex lacustris, C. stricta, and Giant Sedge (Rhynchospora inundata).
Adults feed on tree sap and other non-floral resources.
Life Cycle
Overwinters as a larva. One generation per year in the north; two in the south.
Remarks
Satyrodes appalachia was originally described as a subspecies of eurydice and was only discovered to be a distinct species in 1970 (Carde et al., 1970). The butterfly illustrated as eurydice in the first Field Guide to the Butterflies of North America, East of the Great Plains (Klots, 1951) is actually appalachia.
[text from Butterflies of Canada web site]
See Also
In the Eyed Brown, the dark line on the underside is zigzagged, not gently curved. Also, the Eyed Brown is habitat-restricted to areas of sedges, and is never found in dry woods far from any wet area. Even where large populations occur in extensive wet areas, Eyed Browns seldom stray any distance. Compare images of Eyed Brown and Appalachian Brown dorsal and ventral surfaces.
In the Northern Pearly-Eye, the wing margins are slightly scalloped, and the second eyespot on the forewings is always much smaller (sometimes absent on the upperside). See image of Northern Pearly-Eye.
Internet References
Butterflies and Skippers of North America pinned adult images, US distribution map, adult description, larval and adult food, habitat, flight season, habits (nearctica.com)
Butterflies of Canada pinned adult image, adult and larva description, distribution, similar species, larval food plants, habitat, abundance, flight season, habits (CBIF)
presence in Florida; list (Michael Thomas, Florida State Collection of Arthropods)
Works Cited
1.The Butterflies of North America: A Natural History and Field Guide
James A. Scott. 1992. Stanford University Press.