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Species Pieris rapae - Cabbage White - Hodges#4197

is this a cabbage white? - Pieris rapae Maybe Great White Southern Female? - Pieris rapae Cabbage White - Pieris rapae Not sure what it is - Pieris rapae Day 45: Very late chrysalis, ventral image - Pieris rapae - female Cabbage White - Pieris rapae - Pieris rapae Cabbage White - Pieris rapae who came fluttering by? - Pieris rapae
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Papilionoidea (Butterflies and Skippers)
Family Pieridae (Whites, Sulphurs, Yellows)
Subfamily Pierinae (Whites)
Tribe Pierini (Cabbage Whites, Checkered Whites, Albatrosses)
Genus Pieris
Species rapae (Cabbage White - Hodges#4197)
Hodges Number
4197
Other Common Names
Small White (1)
Explanation of Names
RAPAE: from the Latin "rapa" (turnip); Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and other members of the genus such as Brassica rapa (commonly known as Field Mustard or Rape) are members of the mustard family (Brassicaceae, formerly Cruciferae), which are the larval food plants
Numbers
abundant in many parts of its range
Size
wingspan 30-50 mm (2)
larva length to 35 mm
Identification
Adult: upperside of wings white or pale yellowish-white with black tip on forewing; upperside of female forewing has two black spots; male has one. Both sexes have one black spot well out along front margin on upperside of hindwing.
Underside of forewing white with yellowish apex and two black discal spots in both sexes; underside of hindwing uniformly pale yellow in both sexes.
Larva: green or bluish-green with thin yellow dorsal line (sometimes faint or absent) and lateral line composed of pairs of yellow spots, the anterior spot of each pair with a black central dot; body covered with short fine hair.
Range
Throughout North America (2) (which is the nominate subspecies), and many parts of the world.
Habitat
All habitats, including bogs, meadows, woods, and backyard gardens. Prefers open spaces but may also be found in treed areas, as noted above.
Season
Adults fly from early spring to September (2); mid-April to mid-October in southern Ontario; shorter season farther north, and longer season farther south
Food
Caterpillars eat cabbage and many other crucifers and related plants. (2)
Adults nectar from a very wide array of plants, including mustard, dandelion, red clover, aster, and mint.
Will eat nasturtiums or any plant that contains glucosinates as adults use this chemical cue to locate their host plants.(3)
Life Cycle
Female lays single eggs on undersides of host leaves. Overwinters as a pupa inside a chrysalis attached to some substrate. Two or three generations per year in southern Canada; up to several generations in the southern states.
Can produce more than 800 eggs.(4)

1. Egg. 2. First instar caterpillar. 3. Later instar. 4. Pupa. 5. Adult female. 6. Adult male
Remarks
Introduced accidentally near Montreal in the 1860s, this species has become an important pest. Bacterial and viral diseases now provide some biological control. (2)
The non-native parasitic wasps Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula have been introduced as biocontrols for this species and for Pieris brassica in New Zealand. C. rubecula seems more effective in parasitizing this butterfly. (Cornell University).
Have learned to associate the appearance of oviposition sites with the presence of plants containing sinigrin, which stimulates oviposition.(4)
These butterflies are most vulnerable to parasitism during the 1st two larval instars. By the 3rd instar, caterpillars begin to encapsulate wasp eggs and antipredator behaviors, such as thrashing, become much more effective.(3)
See Also
Best distinguished from other whites by the black spots on the upperside of the forewing, and the yellow hindwing below.
Print References
Milne (2)
Internet References
pinned and live adult and larva images plus description, distribution, abundance, flight season, habitats (Butterflies of Canada)
live larva image (M. & P. Coupar, Museum Victoria, Australia)
Works Cited
1.iNaturalist
2.National Audubon Society Field Guide to Insects and Spiders
Lorus and Margery Milne. 1980. Knopf.
3.Insect Ecology: Behavior, Populations and Communities
P. W. Price, R. F. Denno, M. D. Eubanks. 2011. Cambridge University Press.
4.Insect-Plant Biology
L.M. Schoonhoven, T. Jermy, and J.J.A. Van Loon. 1998. Chapman and Hall.