Subspecies Hesperia leonardus montana - Pawnee Montane Skipper
Phylogenetic relationships of subfamilies and circumscription of tribes in the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea).By Warren, A.D., J.R. Ogawa and A.V.Z. Brower.
Cladistics 24, 1–35., 2008
Warren, A.D., J.R. Ogawa and A.V.Z. Brower. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of subfamilies and circumscription of tribes in the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea). Cladistics 24, 1–35.
A comprehensive tribal-level classification for the worlds subfamilies of Hesperiidae, the skipper butterflies, is proposed for the first time. Phylogenetic relationships between tribes and subfamilies are inferred using DNA sequence data from three gene regions (cytochrome oxidase subunit I-subunit II, elongation factor-1a and wingless). Monophyly of the family is strongly supported, as are some of the traditionally recognized subfamilies, with the following relationships: (Coeliadinae + ("Pyrginae" + (Heteropterinae + (Trapezitinae + Hesperiinae)))). The subfamily Pyrginae of contemporary authors was recovered as a paraphyletic grade of taxa. The formerly recognized subfamily Pyrrhopyginae, although monophyletic, is downgraded to a tribe of the "Pyrginae". The former subfamily Megathyminae is an infra-tribal group of the Hesperiinae. The Australian endemic Euschemon rafflesia
is a hesperiid, possibly related to "Pyrginae" (Eudamini). Most of the traditionally recognized groups and subgroups of genera currently employed to partition the subfamilies of the Hesperiidae are not monophyletic. We recognize eight pyrgine and six hesperiine tribes, including the new tribe Moncini.
Revised classification of the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea) based on combined molecular and morphological data.By Warren, A.D., J.R. Ogawa & A.V.Z. Brower.
Systematic Entomology 34(3): 467-523., 2009
For a copy
Warren, A.D., J.R. Ogawa & A.V.Z. Brower. 2009. Revised classification of the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea) based on combined molecular and morphological data. Systematic Entomology 34(3): 467-523.
We propose a revised higher classification for the genera of Hesperiidae (skipper butterflies) of the world. We have augmented our published DNA data matrix with 49 morphological characters in order to infer relationships for taxa not sampled in the molecular study. We use the results of a combined analysis to identify morphological synapomorphies of the suprageneric clades of Hesperiidae, and to hypothesize a phylogenetic classification of the world’s genera of Hesperiidae, the first of its kind for this diverse group.
A Swift Guide to Butterflies of Mexico and Central America, Second Edition.By Glassberg, J.
Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 304 pp., 2018
Glassberg, J. 2018. A Swift Guide to Butterflies of Mexico and Central America, Second Edition. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 304 pp.
3,250 color photos and maps
A groundbreaking photographic field guide to almost all of Mexico's butterfly species and many of Central America's
This is a revised second edition of a groundbreaking photographic field guide to the butterflies of Mexico and Central America. Written by Jeffrey Glassberg, the pioneering authority on the field identification of butterflies, the guide covers more than 2,000 species and features over 3,700 large, gorgeous color photographs, the very best images available, accompanied by authoritative facing-page text. This second edition includes more species, more than 1,500 new photos, and updated text, maps, and species names. And range maps, field marks, and host plants are included for all Mexican butterflies. The result is an ideal field guide that will enable you to identify almost every butterfly you see.
Some new and rare records of Lepidoptera found in Texas.By Kendall, R.O., & W.W. McGuire.
Bulletin of the Allyn Museum 86: 1-50., 1984
Kendall, R.O., & W.W. McGuire. 1984. Some new and rare records of Lepidoptera found in Texas. Bulletin of the Allyn Museum 86: 1-50.
Some of the records treated here have appeared in the Lepidopterists' News (Season Summary) and others in the Southern Lepidopterists' News. For historical and biological abstracting purposes they are formalized in this paper, together with appropriate credits and reference citations. It will be noted that these particular species, except for Staphylus azteca
(Scudder) and Atrytone mazai
Freeman (oversightsl, were not included in the 1981 Miller and Brown Catalogue/Checklist because their original appearance in the literature was not in a formal publication.
An annotated checklist of the butterflies of Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State park and vicinity.By McGuire, W.W. & M.A. Richard.
Texas Parks & Wildlife Department, Austin. Mimeograph pp. 1-22., 1974
McGuire, W.W. & M.A. Richard. 1974. An annotated checklist of the butterflies of Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State park and vicinity. Texas Parks & Wildlife Department, Austin. Mimeograph pp. 1-22.
Introduction (in part)
The species listed here in are primarily a result of the collecting by the authors during the period 1972-1973. Certain important records of the previous several years are also included. Additionally, the checklist incorporates records of a number of other lepidopterists. The primary focus of the checklist, then, is upon recent collecting, rather than being an attempt to list all known records from the Mid-Valley area.