the New World species form three distinct and nearly disjunct groups: (i) western nearctic (5 spp.), (ii) eastern nearctic (7 spp.), and (iii) the neotropical species; the eastern spp. are relatively easy to identify, whereas the western ones are extremely variable and difficult(3)
Eurasia, Africa, and the New World; in our area, 5 spp. are western, 3 are restricted to se. US, and 4 are more widely eastern(3)
Meadow-type vegetation, orchards
Adults feed on flowers and foliage, often in groups
Larvae feed on roots of various plants during the summer, hibernate in a late instar, pupate in soil in spring; adults emerge in spring(5)
Some are considered pests of ornamental plants and grapevines, especially H. callipyge
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