Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Author of genus is Hübner
Opler and Warren
(Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico) list three species coenia, evarete,
, noting that taxonomy is subject to revision.
For most species larval hosts are in the plant families Verbenaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Lamiaceae, and other mostly related families. A few, such as Junonia genoveva are limited to one or a few species of plants, but most Junonia will accept numerous species within these related plant families.
Opler and Warren
(2003 with later additions) is listed as the reference followed for the classification of Butterflies used here on BugGuide. In this publication the Mangrove Buckeye is Junonia genoveva
, the Tropical Buckeye is Junonia evarete
, and the Common Buckeye is Junonia coenia
. This is following - Lamas, G. 2004: 'Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera'. Checklist: Part 4A Hesperoidea & Papilionoidea.
This is also the classification followed in many recent treatments, including:
There has been a lot of confusion due to the switching back and forth of the usage of the names Junonia genoveva and Junonia evarete, and most of the photographs up to date on BugGuide were switched from current usage due to this confusion, and the resultant fact that many field guides have backwards or confused treatments as well. Hopefully the Lamas treatment will be the final word, and things won't keep switching back and forth!
[comment 11-10-08, David J. Ferguson]
Sex differences: "Buckeye males and females look similar, but females usually have a somewhat different pattern toward the outer margin of the hind wings, with light areas usually better developed. Also, there is a tendency for females to have larger eye spots on the wings than males. Males are much more likely to have white antennae." Comment by David J. Ferguson,