Identification, Images, & Information
For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada
Clickable Guide
Moths Butterflies Flies Caterpillars Flies Dragonflies Flies Mantids Cockroaches Bees and Wasps Walkingsticks Earwigs Ants Termites Hoppers and Kin Hoppers and Kin Beetles True Bugs Fleas Grasshoppers and Kin Ticks Spiders Scorpions Centipedes Millipedes

Upcoming Events

See Moth submissions from National Moth Week 2023

Photos of insects and people from the 2022 BugGuide gathering in New Mexico, July 20-24

Photos of insects and people from the Spring 2021 gathering in Louisiana, April 28-May 2

Photos of insects and people from the 2019 gathering in Louisiana, July 25-27

Photos of insects and people from the 2018 gathering in Virginia, July 27-29

Photos of insects and people from the 2015 gathering in Wisconsin, July 10-12

Previous events


Species Papaipema unimoda - Meadow-Rue Borer - Hodges#9509

9509 Meadow-Rue Borer #2 - Papaipema unimoda Noctuidae: Papaipema unimoda - Papaipema unimoda unimoda dark form  - Papaipema unimoda Which Papaipema? - Papaipema unimoda Papaipema unimoda Papaipema unimoda Papaipema unimoda  - Papaipema unimoda Papaipema unimoda
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Noctuoidea (Owlet Moths and kin)
Family Noctuidae (Owlet Moths)
Subfamily Noctuinae (Cutworm or Dart Moths)
Tribe Apameini
Genus Papaipema (Borer Moths)
Species unimoda (Meadow-Rue Borer - Hodges#9509)
Hodges Number
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Papaipema unimoda (Smith, 1894)
Hydroecia unimoda Smith, 1894
Hydroecia frigida Smith, 1899
Gortyna thalictri Lyman, 1905
Papaipema frigida Hampson, 1910
P. terminalis Strand, 1916
P. perobsoleta (Lyman, 1905)
P. imperspicua Bird, 1908
Phylogenetic sequence # 932465(1)
Lafontaine & Schmidt (2010) listed 47 species of the genus Papaipema in America north of Mexico. (1)
The wingspan ranges from 30-40 mm.
Smith (1894) reported the wingspan 36-39 mm.
Alberta to Colorado east to New Brunswick and North Carolina. (2), (3), (4), (5)
Holotype ♂ from Durango, Colorado by J.B. Smith.
The flight period appears to be June to October peaking in September.
The larvae bore in roots and stems of meadow-rue (Thalictrum spp.), coneflower (Rudbeckia spp.), carrion-flower, Jacob's ladder.
Life Cycle
One generation per year.
Life cycle images:
larva; spent pupa; adult
Beadle & Leckie (2012) reported the species is uncommon. (6)
Print References
Hampson, G.F. 1910. Noctuidae. Catalogue of Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the British Museum 9: 81.
Smith, J.B. 1894. Descriptions of new genera and species of Noctuidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 21: 73; plate 1, row 2, fig. 6.
Internet References
pinned adult image (John Glaser, Maryland)
common name reference and distribution (NatureServe Explorer)
distribution in western Canada - list of provinces (CBIF)
Works Cited
1.Annotated check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico.
Donald J. Lafontaine, B. Christian Schmidt. 2010. ZooKeys 40: 1–239 .
2.North American Moth Photographers Group
3.Owlet Caterpillars of Eastern North America
David L. Wagner. 2011. Princeton University Press.
4.Assessment of species diversity in the Atlantic Maritime Ecozone
McAlpine D.F., Smith I.M. (eds.). 2010. Canadian Science Publishing (NRC Research Press). 785 pp.
5. An annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Alberta, Canada
Gregory R. Pohl, Gary G. Anweiler, B. Christian Schmidt, Norbert G. Kondla. 2010. ZooKeys 38: 1–549.
6.Peterson Field Guide to Moths of Northeastern North America
David Beadle and Seabrooke Leckie. 2012. Houghton Mifflin.
7.BOLD: The Barcode of Life Data Systems
8.Butterflies of North America