I thought it would be nice if there was one place for BugGuide editors to look when trying to figure out which taxonomy to follow when creating and revising guide pages. My hope is to make this list as complete and current as possible, so please chime in if you have any resources to add (or subtract). If any major debate needs to happen regarding a particular taxon, it would be best to start a new forum discussion and mention it here. I'll include links to relevant discussions that I know about.
With the many exceptions noted below, it seems to me that ITIS
is the best default reference to use. I've been using Nomina Nearctica as a last resort when all else fails; it is going offline on Oct. 1, but for anyone who has a personal copy it will still be a good resource for neglected taxa (copies can be purchased here
). It really is a last resort, though: see Bob Carlson's comment here
The various "Species File" websites are proving to be very valuable resources. The existing ones are noted below, and we can check this site
periodically for new ones.
Mites & ticks
: We have been using the "Acari Project
," a.k.a. "Synopsis of the Described Arachnida of the World." It is a pain to naviagate (not searchable) but I haven't been able to find a better alternative. It would be nice if there was one, though, since our mite experts often seem to disagree with this classification. I contacted the person who is allegedly in charge of the Oribatida section there, and he said he had nothing to do with it; he referred me to a recent catalog that has already been incorporated into ITIS.
(World Spider Catalog)
: Brookhart and Brookhart (2006)
, "An annotated checklist of continental North American Solifugae with type depositories, abundance, and notes on their biogeography."
Pseudoscorpions of the World
: Kari's Scorpion Pages
vs. The Scorpion Files
: Class Arachnida in North America (north of Mexico)
(maintained by Mark Harvey, Western Australian Museum)
(Mayflies) - Mayfly Central
, Purdue University; Ephemeroptera Galactica
(North American Odonata, University of Puget Sound)
(Stoneflies) - Valid Stonefly Names for North America
by B.P. Stark, R.W. Baumann, and R.E. DeWalt; Plecoptera Species File
. This USGS site
appears to give a common name for every species in the US.
(Webspinners) - Embioptera Species File
; World List of Extant and Fossil Embiidina (=Embioptera)
- Phasmid Study Group
has been proposed
; Phasmida Species File
is another option and is easier to navigate.
(Orthoptera Species File)
(Earwigs) - Earwig Research Centre
has been suggested; there is also Dermaptera Species File
(Mantids) - Mantodea Species File
(Cockroaches & Termites) - Blattodea Species File
for cockroaches (it will include termites eventually, but doesn't yet); On-line Termite Database
(Zorapterans) - The Zoraptera Database
(Barklice & Parasitic Lice) - Psocodea Species File
does not include Phthiraptera (parasitic lice) yet, but intends to eventually.
looks like a great resource.
: I propose following Aphid Species File
, while not complete, may be the best reference for this group.
: this USDA checklist
is useful in figuring out which subgenus a species belongs in.
Coreoidea Species File
Pentatomoidea Home Page
maintained by Dr. David Rider
: On-line Systematic Catalog of Plant Bugs
(Thrips) - Thrips of the World Checklist
(Megaloptera, Rhaphidioptera, Neuroptera)
"Species catalog of the Neuroptera, Megaloptera, and Raphidioptera of America North of Mexico
, published in 1997, is comprehensive for our area.
J.D. Oswald's "Neuropterida Species of the World
" catalogue is more up-to-date. So the latter should presumably be what we use to verify the current name of a taxon, but the former is a useful reference for other purposes.
(Beetles) - The American Beetles
are our standard (down to genus level). ITIS is up-to-date for many groups, but is missing some big ones. Also see Synopsis of the Described Coleoptera of the World
Tree of Life
seems to have all the subfamilies, tribes, subtribes, genera, and subgenera of Staphylinidae (there's also the catalog at www.staphylinini.org
), and may be useful in sorting out other higher beetle taxa.
Buprestidae: The World of Jewel Beetles
Cerambycidae: Checklist of the Oxypeltidae, Vesperidae, Disteniidae and Cerambycidae, (Coleoptera) of the Western Hemisphere
Carabidae: Catalogue of Geadephaga (Coleoptera: Adephaga) of America, north of Mexico
[see discussion below the dead link]
(Ants, Bees, Wasps, Sawflies)
The Hymenoptera Name Server
seems to be a good default, but there are better references for certain groups (also see Hymenoptera Online Database
(Electronic World Catalog of Symphyta) [discussion
(Classification and Systematics of the Ichneumonidae, list maintained by David Wahl) [discussion
is not included in Hymenoptera Name Server and is incomplete on ITIS. I have been using a combination of Nomina Nearctica and this page at Discover Life
, which seems to be taken from the 1979 Hymenoptera Catalog.
Ampulicidae, Sphecidae, and Crabronidae
- Catalogue of the Sphecidae sensu lato
- Discover Life
- What do people think about using the Trichoptera World Checklist
(Interactive Listing of American Butterflies at www.butterfliesofamerica.com) [discussion
The Nymphalidae Systematics Group
: We now follow Moth Photographers Group
, which is updated constantly. There is a species list here
, and a "taxonomic notes" page here
that summarizes changes to the Hodges list. We had been using All-Leps
as our reference, and while it is very useful for looking up synonyms, it is apparently never updated, nor was it complete or accurate to begin with. (Some discussion of All-Leps here
.) (11/2009 edit: at least the family structure of All-Leps has now been updated to some extent.)
Global Taxonomic Database of Gracillariidae
Revised Checklist of Gelechiidae in America north of Mexico
Online World Catalogue of the Tortricidae
Noctuoidea: Lafontaine & Schmidt 2010
(Scorpionflies etc.) - World Checklist of Extant Mecoptera Species
(last update 1997, at least in some cases)
(Flies) - The Diptera Site
is the most accurate and up-to-date resource for the order as a whole. There are also some taxon-specific sites:
Mydidae & Apioceridae
For Cecidomyiidae, the Gagné & Jaschhof World Catalog
is the best reference.
(Twisted-winged Parasites) - One possibility is using the list in Kathirithamby and Taylor (2005)
, but see discussion here
(rarely encountered non-insect hexapods)
(Centipedes) - Chilobase
has been suggested.
(Millipedes) - How about this World Checklist of Millipede Groups
An updated classification of the recent Crustacea
(2001) can be checked for higher taxonomy.
For isopods, World List of Marine, Freshwater and Terrestrial Isopod Crustaceans
may be our best bet; Checklist of the terrestrial isopods of the New World
(1999) is another resource to check.
For crayfish: The Crayfish & Lobster Taxonomy Browser