Gilligan, T.M., J.W. Brown, J, Baixeras, 2020. Immigrant Tortricidae: Holarctic versus Introduced Species in North America. Insects, 11(9), 594: 1-59. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090594
Abstract: In support of a comprehensive update to the checklist of the moths of North America, we attempt to determine the status of 151 species of Tortricidae present in North America that may be Holarctic, introduced, or sibling species of their European counterparts. Discovering the natural distributions of these taxa is often difficult, if not impossible, but several criteria can be applied to determine if a species that is present in both Europe and North America is natively Holarctic, introduced, or represented by different but closely related species on each continent.