Identification, Images, & Information
For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada

Polypedilum Group

Endochironomus Kieffer, Tribelos Townes, Synendotendipes, n. gen., and Endotribelos, n. gen. of the Nearctic Region
By Gail Grodhaus
Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 1987
Full citation: "Endochironomus Kieffer, Tribelos Townes, Synendotendipes, n. gen., and Endotribelos, n. gen. (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the Nearctic Region", Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 60:167-247 (Apr. 1987).

A review of the known species of Endochironomus and related genera.


The Nearctic Species of Tendipedini
By Henry K. Townes
University of Notre Dame, 1945
Henry K. Townes, "The Nearctic Species of Tendipedini [Diptera, Tendipedidae (= Chironomidae)]", American Midland Naturalist 34:1-206 (1945). (JSTOR)

This is the most recent revision of the tribe Chironomini as a whole. Some individual genera have been revised since.

The name Tendipes was used for Chironomus in the mid-20th century until a ruling of the International Commision on Zoological Nomenclature restored the traditional name.

The adult males of Chironomidae (Diptera) of the Holarctic Region
By Torgny Wiederholm
Entomologica Scandinavica, 1989
Entomologica Scandinavica Supplement 34 is a 532 page volume with keys, diagnoses, and drawings of the genera of Chironomidae of the Holarctic region.

The genera of larval midges of Canada (Diptera, Chironomidae)
By Oliver D.R., Roussel M.E.
The insects and arachnids of Canada, Pt. 11. Ottawa: Agriculture Canada. 263 pp., 1983

The Chironomidae
By P. D. Armitage, P. S. Cranston, L. C. V. Pinder
Springer, 1995
Subtitled "The biology and ecology of non-biting midges."

The publisher writes: "The dipteran family Chironomidae is the most widely distributed and frequently the most abundant group of insects in freshwater with representatives in both terrestrial and marine environments. This book provides a state-of-the-art account of the family including both pure and applied aspects of research."

Available on Google Books at

Contains a key to subfamilies beginning at page 53, which suffers

DIPTERA: an Introduction to Flies
By Nikita Vikhrev
Phyton publisher, Moscow, 2020
Available on NHBS (UK):
Diptera: An Introduction to Flies is easy to read and gives a general introduction to this order of amazing insects.
The book was first published in Russian in 2019. the current English version was substantially extended and revised by the author and editors.
160 pages, 250 colour photos, hardback

Monographs of the Diptera of North America
By Hermann Loew
Smithsonian Institution, Volume 6, 1862
View Monograph here

Catalogue of American Nycteribiidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea)
By Gustavo Graciolli, AnalĂ­a G. Autino & Guillermo L. Claps
Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 51(2): 142-159, 2007