Species Evarcha hoyi
A Predator from East Africa that Chooses Malaria Vectors as Preferred PreyBy Nelson, X. J. and R. R. Jackson
PLoS ONE 1(1): e132, 2006
All vectors of human malaria, a disease responsible for more than one million deaths per year, are female mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles. Evarcha culicivora is an East African jumping spider (Salticidae) that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by selecting blood-carrying female mosquitoes as preferred prey.
By testing with motionless lures made from mounting dead insects in lifelike posture on cork discs, we show that E. culicivora selects Anopheles mosquitoes in preference to other mosquitoes and that this predator can identify Anopheles by static appearance alone. Tests using active (grooming) virtual mosquitoes rendered in 3-D animation show that Anopheles' characteristic resting posture is an important prey-choice cue for E. culicivora. Expression of the spider's preference for Anopheles varies with the spider's size, varies with its prior feeding condition and is independent of the spider gaining a blood meal.
A spider that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing female mosquitoes as preyBy Jackson, R. R., X. J. Nelson, and G. O. Sune
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102: 15155-15160, 2005
ABSTRACT: Spiders do not feed directly on vertebrate blood, but a small East African jumping spider (Salticidae), Evarcha culicivora, feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing as preferred prey female mosquitoes that have had recent blood meals. Experiments show that this spider can identify its preferred prey by sight alone and by odor alone. When presented with two types of size-matched motionless lures, E. culicivora consistently chose blood-fed female mosquitoes in preference to nonmosquito prey, male mosquitoes, and sugar-fed female mosquitoes (i.e., females that had not been feeding on blood). When the choice was between mosquitoes of different sizes (both blood- or both sugar-fed), small juveniles chose the smaller prey, whereas adults and larger juveniles chose the larger prey. However, preference for blood took precedence over preference for size (i.e., to get a blood meal, small individuals took prey that were larger than the preferred size, and larger individuals took prey that were smaller than the preferred size). When presented with odor from two prey types, E. culicivora approached the odor from blood-fed female mosquitoes significantly more often the odor of the prey that were not carrying blood.
Taxonomic notes on the Evarcha falcata species complex (Aranei Salticidae)By Marusik, Y. M. and D. V. Logunov
Arthropoda Selecta 6 (3/4): 95-104, 1997
ABSTRACT: Evarca falcata (Clerk, 1757) has been shown to actually represent a complex of three sibling species, all described and illustrated upon samples covering the entire Holarctic. E. falcata s.str. actually occurs throughout Europe, reaching northern Kazakhstan, Xinjiang, China as well as West and South Siberia up to Cisbaikalia in the east. E. hoyi (Peckham & Peckham, 1883) is a "good" species, purely Nearctic in distribution; its lectotype is designated, and Habrocestum latens Banks, 1892 considered as another of its subjective junior synonyms, for the first time. E. proszynskii sp.n. is described from the Far East of Russia, though its actual distribution covers also much of Siberia and a part of East Kazakhstan as well as China, Korea, Japan and much of western North America. Hence the ranges of these three species are largely allopatric, although only male-containing samples in the relatively few and minor zones of contact or overlapping (Tuva, Siberia for E. falcata and E. proszynskii and the central regions of the Nearctic for E. proszynskii and E. hoyi) can be identified securely to species.
The jumping spider genus Thiodina Simon, 1900 reinterpreted, and revalidation of Colonus F.O.P-Cambridge, 1901 and Nilakantha PeBy Abel A. Bustamante, Wayne P. Maddison, & Gustavo R.S. Ruiz
Zootaxa 4012(1): 181–190 , 2015
Title was cut off, here is the complete one: "The jumping spider genus Thiodina
Simon, 1900 reinterpreted, and revalidation of Colonus
F.O.P-Cambridge, 1901 and Nilakantha
Peckham & Peckham, 1901 (Araneae: Salticidae: Amycoida)"
This transfers all North America Thiodina
into the genus Colonus
. Wayne Maddison let me know that two papers are coming out which will properly show the relationships and subfamilies of Salticidae, so unless someone doesn't see this and tries to change Thiodina
in BugGuide, I've decided to wait until those papers are published in order to rearrange the way Salticidae is currently set up here.