Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
The following are referred to subgenus Eurema, or alternatively (primarily by North American authors) treated as independent subgenera of Eurema or as full genera:
Abaeis Hübner 1819. Type species: Papilio nicippe Cramer
Pyrisitia Butler 1870. Type species: Papilio proterpia Fabricius
Teriocolias Röber 1909. Type species: Terias atinas Hewitson [= Eurema zelia (Lucas); Tericolias with only one species is not found in North America north of Mexico]
Explanation of Names
Eurema Hübner 1819
Except by North American authors, treatments of Eurema
generally place all American and a few Old World species of Eurema
, and the segregate genera Abaeis
Butler, and Teriocolias
Röber, within Eurema
Hübner subgenus Eurema
[following Yata, 1989 'A Revision of the Old World Species of the Genus Eurema
' Pt. 1; as well as treatments of several other authors]. However, there has been a trend in recent decades to recognized these as four distinct genera (or at least subgenera) by some North American workers, and this treatment is commonly seen in contemporary literature on North American Butterflies; yet it is debated. While it is difficult to find justification for the separation of Teriocolias
), and it is possible that they are artificial groupings, they are treated separately on BugGuide, following the treatment of Butterflies of America
and that in Jonathan Pehlam's 'A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada'
Eurema subgenus Terias Swainson does not occur in the Americas, but contains a majority of species in the genus, and most of the Old World species of Eurema. Terias is sometimes treated as a distinct genus from Eurema. In the past the name Terias was sometimes thought to be the proper name for all Eurema, and in older works our species are often listed under that name.
The Neotropical genus Leucidia E. Doubleday, with only two species, is closely related, and likely should be included within Eurema. It does not occur in North America north of Mexico.
5 spp. n. of Mexico (not including 4 species of Pyrisitia
and one of Abaeis
Klots, Alexander B. 1928. 'A Revision of the Genus Eurema (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) Part I
. 'New World Species, Morphology and Phylogeny'. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 36(1): 61-72, 74-77, 79
Yata, O. 1989. 'A Revision of the Old World Species of the genus Eurema Hübner (Lepidoptera, Pieridae)', Part I
. 'Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Subgenus Terias
and Desription of the Subgenus Eurema
'. Bulletin of the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History 9: 1-103.