Species Philanthus gibbosus
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon (Aculeata - Ants, Bees and Stinging Wasps)
No Taxon (Apoidea (minus Anthophila) - Apoid Wasps)
Family Crabronidae (Square-headed Wasps, Sand Wasps, and Allies)
Genus Philanthus (Beewolves)
Species gibbosus (Philanthus gibbosus)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
, 1775). Synonyms:
Vespa gibbosus Fabricius, 1775 (original combination)
Philanthus punctatus, Cheilopogonus punctiger, Anthophilus gibbosus, Philanthus xanthostigma, Philanthus maculifrons, Pseudanthophilus maculifrons, Pseudanthophilus xanthostigma, Philanthus punctatus var. cockerelli, Epiphilanthus punctatus var. chilopsidis, Anthophilus punctatus, Anthophilus melanaspis, Anthophilus maculiventris
Explanation of Names
Species name gibbosus
from Latin gibb-
Very rough 'skin' deep punctures.
Head: Black, shiny. Top of head has two yellow marks, and also a yellow mark at the back of each eye. Mandibles black, base yellow.
Female: Lower face entirely yellow; usually males have more yellow than females, but the opposite is true for P. gibbosus.
Yellow spot between antenna bases.
Male: Lower face has wide yellow stripe along inner eye margins and a yellow spot at center above mouth. Spot above antenna bases larger than female’s.
Thorax: Black, pitted. Collar raised, yellow, indented at center, but not broken. Two yellow spots mid thorax. Thorax side has two yellow spots below wing knob (tegula).
Abdomen: Black; segments depressed, (row of spare tires-look). Segment 1 is entirely black. Segment 2 has a wide yellow band, with obvious deep pits. Segments 3 to 5 have narrow, somewhat wavy yellow bands on the lower edge of the segments; bands progressively wider on succeeding segments.
widespread (coast to coast in NA) (2)
Forest edges, meadows, yards.
All season in the south; Canada Late June to mid-September.
Larvae feed on all the Sweat Bees: Halictidae including the Cuckoo Bee Sphecodes. Also Plasterer Bees, Colletes and Crabro Wasps Crossocerus species. Adults feed on nectar.
Females with prey:
Colonies are small, but not close together, using any soil type, flat or steep earthen banks. Tunnels deep, 30 mm with about 7 cells made off to the side of the main tunnel. Each cell has 8 to 16 bees, usually Halictid species. Occasionally 2 females will use the same tunnel opening, but each uses its own cells. Males dig small tunnels and close them, to sleep in during the night, usually in aggregations. Females keep nest closed and sleep in the tunnel at night.
Each female raises its own brood. However several wasps have been seen sharing one burrow's entrance.
Holotype as Vespa gibbosa male by Fabricius, 1775. Type Locality: North America. In the University of Copenhagen, Zoological Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark.
“The type is a damaged, headless, male in the collection F[Fabricius]; I found it to agree in all respects with a male (now in Mus. Leiden) from Westfield, New Jersey, U.S.A., which I received under the name Ph. gibbosus from Mr. G. R. Ferguson.” by J. van der Vecht 1961.
Holotype as Philanthus punctatus male by Say, 1824. Type Locality: Pennsylvania. Type destroyed.
Syntypes as Cheilopogonus punctiger by Westwood, 1835. Type Locality: Indiana. Type destroyed in Belfast. Westwood’s Collection is at Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford, England.
Lectotype as Philanthus xanthostigma female & Philanthus maculifrons male by Cameron, 1891. Type Locality: Mexico. In the British Museum of Natural History, London, England. Lectotype designated by Bohart & Grissell 1975.
Lectotype as Philanthus punctatus var. cockerelli male by Dunning, 1897. Type Locality: New Mexico. In the Academy of Natural Sciences, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Lectotype designated by Cresson 1928.
Holotype as Epiphilanthus punctatus var. chilopsidis female by Cockerell, 1898. Type Locality: New Mexico. In the Academy of Natural Sciences, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Holotype as Anthophilus melanaspis female by Cameron, 1905. Type Locality: Mexico. In the British Museum of Natural History, London, England.
Holotype as Anthophilus maculiventris female by Cameron, 1905. Type Locality: Mexico. In the British Museum of Natural History, London, England.
has some similar species.
Borror, entry for gibb- (1)
Marshall, photos 560.6, 560.7 [cite:55904
Major Long’s Second Expedition; Narrative of an Expedition to the Source of St. Peter’s River, Lake Winnepeek, Lake of the Woods, 1824, Vol. 2 & Appendix by Say, pp. 342-343.
The Zoological Journal, 1835, Vol. 5 by Westwood, pg. 441.
Biologia Centrali-Americana, Hymenoptera, 1891, Vol. 2 by Cameron, pg. 131.
Entomological News, 1897, Vol. 8 by Dunning, pg. 69.
Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences, 1897-1899 Vol. 7, by Cockerell, pg. 141.
Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 1905, Vol. 31 by Cameron, pg. 377.
Wasp Studies Afield, 1918 by Rau & Rau, pp. 109-115.
Entomological News, 1973, Vol. 84 by Barrows & Snyder, pp. 314-316.
. Burrow sharing and nest transfer in the digger wasp Philanthus gibbosus
. The Life History and Habits of the solitary Wasp Philanthus gibbosus
|1.||Dictionary of Word Roots and Combining Forms|
Donald J. Borror. 1960. Mayfield Publishing Company.