Subfamily Polistinae - Paper Wasps
The Social Wasps of the Americas Excluding the VespinaeBy Richards, O.W.
British Museum (Natural History), 1978
vii + 580 pp. and 4 colour plates. Provides keys to all the genera and species of New World Polistinae. Keys are poorly illustrated and in many cases only useful for experts. Key to Polistes difficult to use because it also includes the numerous Central and South American species. Separation of females of the widespread, hypervariable P. fuscatus from related species often inaccurate. Key to Polistes males does not work for most species.
An anocellar polistine wasp (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae) from TexasBy Volker Lohrmann, George C. Waldren, Martin Reiß, Michael S. Engel
Zoosystematics and Evolution 92(2): 251-255, 2016
Revision of the West Palaearctic Polistes Latreille, with the descriptions of two species – an integrative approachBy Christian Schmid-Egger, Kees van Achterberg, Rainer Neumeyer, Jérôme Morinière, & Stefan Schmidt
ZooKeys (713): 53–112, 2017
Full title: Revision of the West Palaearctic Polistes Latreille, with the descriptions of two species – an integrative approach using morphology and DNA barcodes (Hymenoptera, Vespidae)
Relevant particularly to our introduced member of the subgenus Polistes (Polistes)
, P. dominula
A phylogenetic analysis of the social wasp genus Brachygastra Perty, 1833, and description of a new species (Hymenoptera: ...By Sergio N.Andena, James M.Carpenter
American Museum of Natural History (American Museum Novitates), 2012
Full title: A phylogenetic analysis of the social wasp genus Brachygastra Perty, 1833, and description of a new species (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Epiponini)
Full text PDF
Total-evidence Phylogeny of the New World Polistes Lepeletier, 1836, Paper Wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae, Polistini)By Alexandre Somavilla, Bernardo Santos, James Michael Carpenter, Sergio Ricardo Andena, & Marcio Luiz de Oliveira
American Museum Novitates, no. 3973, 42 pp., 2021
Quick summary and background: Preliminary work by Carpenter (1996) using morphology alone concluded that Polistes (Aphanilopterus)
was rendered paraphyletic and synonymized all New World genera under P. (Aphanilopterus)
. However, subsequent work more frequently rejected the paraphyly of P. aphanilopterus
and, thus, the need for such synonymization (i.e. Arévalo et al., 2004; Pickett and Wenzel, 2004; Pickett and Carpenter, 2010). Following an integrative approach involving morphology, molecular biology, and behavior, the five New World subgenera sensu Richards (1973, 1978) are recovered as monophyletic groupings and thus reinstated as valid taxa.
Two new color forms of Polistes major Palisot de Beauvois from California and Arizona (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)By Bequeart, J.C
Entomological news, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 7-13., 1925
Primarily useful for P. major
and P. palmarum
(originally considered forms of a single species), though some comparisons to P. carnifex
are also given.
Notes on VespoideaBy Viereck, H.L.
Entomological news and proceedings of the entomological section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. 13, no., 1902
Useful for keying P. carnifex
and P. major
, which range into the southern US.