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Subfamily Vespinae - Hornets and Yellowjackets

Male Yellow Jackets-all the same species? - Vespula flavopilosa - male Yellowjacket in Bee Plant - Dolichovespula arenaria Vespula vidua - Queen - Vespula vidua - female Vespula maculifrons? - Vespula vidua - female Vespidae: Vespula flavopilosa? - Vespula flavopilosa Vespula pensylvanica nest - Vespula pensylvanica Yellowjacket (?) - Vespula squamosa - female bee/wasp - Vespula squamosa
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon (Aculeata - Ants, Bees and Stinging Wasps)
Superfamily Vespoidea
Family Vespidae (Hornets, Yellowjackets; Paper, Potter, Mason, and Pollen Wasps; and Allies)
Subfamily Vespinae (Hornets and Yellowjackets)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
our fauna revised in(1); summary of changes made since(2):
Two exotic spp. introduced: Vespa affinis Linnaeus and Vespa simillima (Smith)
One new species described: Dolichovespula alpicola Eck (AK-AB to AZ-NM along the Rocky Mts)
Several species previously considered Holarctic are not found in both North America and the Palearctic. Records of Vespula vulgaris, Vespula austriaca, Dolichovespula adulterina, and D. norwegica actually refer to Vespula alascensis (Packard), Vespula infernalis (de Saussure), D. albida (Sladen), and D. arctica (Rohwer), respectively; Vespula intermedia (du Buysson) should be used instead of Vespula rufa(1)
Numbers
20 established spp. (of which 2 are adventive) in 3 genera in our fauna(1)
plus records of 3 additional adventive spp. of Vespa that failed to become established: V. simillima (~1997), V. affinis (2010), & V. mandarinia (2019-2021).
Identification
Key to spp. in(1); an older but still helpful key in(2)
key to species with images in the Guide(4)

Comparison of face structure:
   
Dolichovespula Vespula Vespa
Range
worldwide
Food
Larvae eat mostly caterpillars. Adults take nectar.
Life Cycle
Social wasps. They build paper nests surrounded by an envelope.
Works Cited
1.The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera)
L.S. Kimsey and J.M. Carpenter. 2012. Journal of Hymenoptera Research Vol. 28: 37–65.
2.Yellowjackets of America North of Mexico
Akre, R.D., A. Greene, J.F. MacDonald, P.J. Landolt, and H.G. Davis. 1980. U.S. Department of Agriculture.
3.Identification Atlas of the Vespidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata) of the Northeastern Nearctic Region
Matthias Buck, Stephen A. Marshall, and David K. B. Cheung. 2008. Biological Survey of Canada [Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification].
4.YELLOWJACKETS & HORNETS THROUGH A LENS