Identification, Images, & Information
For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada

Subfamily Vespinae - Hornets and Yellowjackets


Phylogeny and classification of Hymenoptera
By Sharkey M.J.
Zootaxa 1668: 521–548, 2007

Hymenoptera of the world: an identification guide to families
By Goulet H., Huber J., eds.
Agriculture Canada Publication 1894/E. 668 pp., 1993

Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico
By Karl V. Krombein, Paul D. Hurd, Jr., David R. Smith, and B. D. Burks
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979
Available online at Internet Archive:
Volume 1
Volume 2
Volume 3 (index)

Wasp Farm
By Howard Ensign Evans
Comstock Publishing, 1963
Essays and life history observations.

New genera and species of Nearctic Neuropteroid insects.
By Banks, N.
Transactions of the American Entomological Society 26(3): 239-259., 1900
Full Text - JSTOR
Full Text - BHL

Banks, N. 1900. New genera and species of Nearctic Neuropteroid insects. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 26(3): 239-259.

Noteworthy records of orthopteroid and hemipteroid insects from southwestrn Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta
By Larson D.J.
Ent. Soc. Sask. 33(2): 10-14, 2014
Full text

i thank Geoff Scudder for directing me towards this publication

Principles of Insect Morphology
By R. E. Snodgrass
McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1935
A classic reference work by one of the titans of the subject.

Can be read online at: https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.50045/page/n3

Phylogenomics and the evolution of hemipteroid insects
By Johnson K.P. et al.
PNAS, 2018