Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Euzophera semifuneralis (Walker, 1863)
Nephopteryx semifuneralis Walker, 1863
* phylogenetic sequence #178650
Adult: forewing reddish-brown to AM line, which is almost halfway along wing; AM and PM lines white, zigzag, enclosing a large mottled blackish patch that begins at the costa but usually stops short of the inner margin; dark shading immediately beyond PM line resembles a diffuse irregular subterminal line; terminal area pale gray to whitish, especially near apex; hindwing dirty white or pale gray with dark terminal line and pale fringe.
Larva: body color varies from dusky white to grayish purple with the dorsum darker than the underside, though many specimens taken are dark lavender or dark red; head capsule, cervical shield and anal plate vary from dark yellow to dark brown, and often exhibit indefinite pigmented areas; only long and distinct primary setae are present, giving the larva a bristly appearance.
[description by Michigan State U.]
Southern Canada and all of United States.
Forest, ornamental, and fruit trees; larvae are found beneath the bark of living trees, usually in the trunk rather than the branches; adults are attracted to light.
Adults fly from May to November (2 broods). Larvae from April to October, and overwinter beneath bark.
Larvae feed beneath bark on the cambium layer of tree trunks of various species, including apple, apricot, basswood, cherry, cottonwood, ginkgo, mountain-ash, mulberry, nectarine, olive, peach, pear, pecan, persimmon, plum, poplar, sweet gum, walnut.
Two generations per year; overwinters as a mature larva beneath bark in a silken cocoon that appears identical to the one in which it pupates in April; first-brood adults emerge in May and June; 25-50 eggs are laid singly or in small clusters in bark cracks or around tree wounds; eggs hatch in about 9 days, and larval development through 7 instars takes about 5 weeks; second-brood adults emerge from July to September; eggs are laid, and larvae feed until mid-October or first frost.
Larvae may be a pest in commercial cherry orchards, especially those that use mechanical harvesting methods which can damage the bark and provide prime oviposition sites.
Root Collar Borer
) is larger [wingspan 30-41 mm] and has a reddish terminal area with no subterminal line
Neunzig, H. H., 1990. Moths of America North of Mexico. Fascicle 15.3: p.54, pl.1.30-33
Powell, J. A. & P. A. Opler 2009. Moths of Western North America. University of California Press. pl.26.27f, p.196 (1)
Walker, F. 1863. Crambites & Tortricites. List of the Specimens of Lepidopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum 27: 57
pinned adult image
by David Smith (Furman U., South Carolina)
common name reference
plus larval foodplants and flight season (Ohio State U.)
presence in California; list
of 11 specimen records with dates and locations (U. of California at Berkeley)
presence in Florida; list
(John Heppner, Florida State Collection of Arthropods)
presence in Ontario; list
(NHIC; Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources)