Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Orig. Comb: Papilio gilippus Cramer 1776
(Sometimes date of publication is listed as 1775.)
Explanation of Names
Name gilippus is obscure. Perhaps a patronym, as Gilipp is a family name (Internet searches).
One of three species in the genus north of Mexico. (1)
Similar to Monarch, but dark brown. See references for comparison with Soldier, Danaus eresimus.
mostly: sw US, FL (CA-TX-NE-NV) - Map
Open areas with hostplants.
All year in southern United States, July-August in northern part of range.
Larva feed on Milkweeds, Asclepias, also other genera in The Asclepiadaceae family.
Click on an image to view the life cycle:
Courtship and mating:
See also: Photo Essay
- Doreen (Dora) Martinez in South Texas, 2009
Aggregations on plants that provide chemical needed to manufacture their sex pheromone:
Type Locality: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Brower, J.V.Z. 1958. Experimental studies of mimicry in some North American butterflies. Part III. Danaus gilippus berenice and Limenitis archippus floridensis. Evolution 12: 273-285.
Brower, L.P. 1961a. Experimental analysis of egg cannibalism in the monarch and queen butterflies, Danaus plexippus and D. gilippus berenice. Physiological Zoology 34: 287-296.
Brower, L.P. 1961b. Studies on the migration of the monarch butterfly I. Breeding populations of Danaus plexippus and D. gilippus berenice in south central Florida. Ecology 42: 76-83.
Brower, L.P. 1962. Evidence for interspecific competition in natural populations of the monarch and queen butterflies, Danaus plexipus and D. gilippus berenice in south central Florida. Ecology 43: 549-552.
Brower, L.P., J.V.Z. Brower, & F.P. Cranston. 1965. Courtship behavior of the queen butterfly, Danaus gilippus berenice (Cramer). Zoologica 50: 1-39.
Einem, G.E. 2003. Fall migration of Queens, Danaus gilippus strigosus Bates, in Mexico and Texas. News of the Lepidopterists' Society 45(2):39, 47.
McLaughlin, R.E. & J. Myers. 1970. Ophryocystis elektroscirrha sp. n. a neogregarine pathogen of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus (L.) and the Florida queen butterfly Danaus gilippus berenice Cramer. Journal of Protozoology 17: 300-305.
Moranz R. & L.P. Brower 1998. Geographic and temporal variation of cardenolide-based chemical defenses of queen butterfly (Danaus gilippus) in northern Florida. Journal of Chemical Ecology 24: 905-32.
Myers, J. 1968. The structure of the antennae of the Florida queen butterfly, Danaus gilippus berenice (Cramer). Journal of Morphology 125: 315-328.
Myers, J.H. 1968. Olfaction and courtship behavior of the Florida queen butterfly. Master's thesis, Tufts University, Medford.
Myers, J. 1969. Distribution of foodplant chemoreceptors on the female Florida queen butterfly, Danaus gilippus berenice (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 23: 196-198.
Myers, J.H. & M.E. Walter. 1968. Insecticide poisoning as a possible cause of an aberration of pupation behavior in the Florida queen butterfly. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 61: 1343.
Myers, J. & L.P. Brower. 1969. A behavioural analysis of the courtship pheromone receptors of the queen butterfly, Danaus gilippus berenice. Journal of Insect Physiology 15: 2117-2130.
Pliske, T.E. & Salpeter, M.M. 1971. The structure and development of the hairpencil glands in males of the queen butterfly, Danaus gilippus berenice. Journal of Morphology 134: 215-241.
Ritland, D.B. 1991a. Revising a classic butterfly mimicry scenario: demonstration of Müllerian mimicry between Florida viceroys (Limenitis archippus floridensis) and queens (Danaus gilippus berenice). Evolution 45:918-934.
Ritland, D.B. 1991b. Unpalatability of the viceroy butterfly (Limenitis archippus) and its purported mimicry model, the Florida queen (Danaus gilippus). Oecologia 88: 102-108.
Ritland, D.B. 1994. Variations in the palatability of queen butterflies (Danaus gilippus) and implications regarding mimicry. Ecology 75: 732-746.
Schneider, D. & U. Seibt. 1969. Sex pheromone of the queen butterfly: Electroantennogram responses. Science 164: 1173-1174.
Glassberg, p. 144, plate 45 (3)
Scott, #90, fig. 51 (p. 134--larva) p. 231, plate 19 (4)