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Genus Ammopelmatus - Jerusalem Cricket

Jiminy cricket! - Ammopelmatus Jerusalem cricket from montane southern Sierra Nevada - Ammopelmatus Large bug in California garage? - Ammopelmatus Jerusalem cricket - Ammopelmatus Jerusalem Cricket - Ammopelmatus Random Bug - Ammopelmatus insect on path around Lake Elizabeth midday 2021 June 02 - Ammopelmatus jerusalem - Ammopelmatus
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Orthoptera (Grasshoppers, Crickets, Katydids)
Suborder Ensifera (Long-horned Orthoptera)
Infraorder Tettigoniidea (Katydids, Camel Crickets, and relatives)
Family Stenopelmatidae (Jerusalem Crickets)
Genus Ammopelmatus (Jerusalem Cricket)
Other Common Names
Woh-tzi-Neh (Navajo, variously translated as "old bald-headed man", "skull insect", or "bone-neck beetle"), Nina de la Tierra (Spanish, "child of the earth"), Potato Bug, Devil's Baby.
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Ammopelmatus Tinkham 1965
Formerly in Stenopalmatus, all US species are now in Ammopelmatus (Weissman et al., 2021).
Explanation of Names
Stenopalmatus (former name) is probably from Greek stenos (στενος)- "narrow, straight" + pelma (πελμα)- "sole (of the foot)"
Numbers
Capinera (1) states the genus needs revision, with 14 species currently described in the family, but more than 60 North American species likely.
Size
21-69 mm
Identification
Wingless. Antennae long. Front of pronotum is wide, antennae widely separated at base, head is very large. Tibiae are robust with spines for digging, and tarsi have pads beneath. Hind femora do not extend beyond tip of abdomen in this family (1).
Range
Western United States, basically west of 100 west longitude--just reaching western Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas. Dark Jerusalem Cricket, S. fuscus is widespread, likely represents a species group (1).

California; two of the species are rare and local (Endangered insects of CA):
A. kelsoensis (Kelso Jerusalem Cricket): Kelso Dunes in the Mojave Desert
A. muwu (Point Conception Jerusalem Cricket): sw. Santa Barbara Co.
Habitat
Varied, often found under rocks and logs, when digging, etc. Will often come to lights at night.
Food
Predatory on other insects, also feeds on roots, decaying vegetation. Sometimes found eating potatoes. In captivity, species in our area will also take dog food. Species not from our area might not, however, and may be more strictly carnivorous.
Life Cycle
Live in burrows and under rocks, logs, may wander on surface at night. Adults, and sometimes nymphs, strike ground with abdomen to produce species-specific drumming patterns (1). Female makes depression in soil for masses of oval, white eggs. Female often devours mate. One generation per year. Life history based on Milne's (2) description of that for Stenopelmatus fuscus.
The spermatophore provided by the male to the female may rub off easily if the female digs too much.
Remarks
Said to be able to deliver a strong bite, but also to make a good terrarium pet.
Print References
Arnett and Jacques, #27--S. fuscus (3)
Burmeister, Handbuch der Entomologie, v. 2, pt. 2, no. 1, p.720--original description of genus Stenopalmatus (in German)
Capinera, pp. 216-217, plate 48 (1)
Helfer, pp. 305-306, figs. 483, 484 (4)
Milne, pp. 437-438, plate 247--S. fuscus (2)
Olson, #27 (5)
Powell and Hogue, pp. 70, 72, give several common names, plate 2e--S. fuscus (6)
Weissman, D. B., Vandergast, A. G., Song, H., Shin, S., Mckenna, D. D., & Ueshima, N. (2021). Generic relationships of New World Jerusalem crickets (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatoidea:Stenopelmatinae), including all known species of Stenopelmatus. Zootaxa, 4917(1), 1–122. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4917.1.1
Werner and Olson, pp. 43-44 (7)
Internet References
SINA family page--photo of a Stenopelmatus
Works Cited
1.Field Guide To Grasshoppers, Katydids, And Crickets Of The United States
John L. Capinera, Ralph D. Scott, Thomas J. Walker. 2004. Cornell University Press.
2.National Audubon Society Field Guide to Insects and Spiders
Lorus and Margery Milne. 1980. Knopf.
3.Simon & Schuster's Guide to Insects
Dr. Ross H. Arnett, Dr. Richard L. Jacques. 1981. Fireside.
4.How to Know the Grasshoppers, Cockroaches, and Their Allies
Jacques R. Helfer. 1962. Wm. C. Brown Company.
5.50 Common Insects of the Southwest
Carl E. Olson. 2004. Western National Parks Association.
6.California Insects
Jerry A. Powell, Charles L. Hogue. 1989. University of California Press.
7.Living With Insects of the Southwest: How to Identify Helpful, Harmful and Venomous Insects
Floyd G. Werner, Carl Olson. 1994. Perseus Publishing.