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Species Harmonia axyridis - Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle

 
 
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Predicted impact of an exotic generalist predator on monarch butterfly populations: A quantitative risk assessment.
By Koch, R.L., R.C. Venette, and W.D. Hutchison.
Biological Invasions 8(5): 1179-1193., 2006
Springer

Koch, R.L., R.C. Venette, and W.D. Hutchison. 2006. Predicted impact of an exotic generalist predator on monarch butterfly (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) populations: A quantitative risk assessment. Biological Invasions 8(5): 1179-1193.

Abstract
The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), was recently identified as a potential hazard to monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus (L.). A quantitative risk assessment for the potential impact of H. axyridis on D. plexippus in Minnesota corn and soybean fields was developed using risk analysis software. This assessment considered a potential worst-case scenario for the impact of H. axyridis on D. plexippus. Habitat-specific recruitment of D. plexippus eggs was determined empirically. Subsequently, simulated abundance of D. plexippus in each habitat was reduced by two classes of stage-specific mortality: predation by H. axyridis and causes other than H. axyridis. Predation was modeled as a function of D. plexippus exposure to H. axyridis, and predation rate of D. plexippus by H. axyridis. Exposure and subsequent risk varied considerably by habitat, with a low risk of H. axyridis adversely affecting D. plexippus populations developing in corn fields, but a moderate to high risk in soybean fields. Predicted rates of D. plexippus mortality attributable to H. axyridis were greater in soybean compared to corn fields, possibly due to the numerical response of H. axyridis to soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura. This study demonstrates that H. axyridis has the potential to have a strong adverse impact on D. plexippus populations. However, the likelihood of occurrence for this worst-case scenario remains uncertain. To evaluate the landscape-level risk of H. axyridis impacting D. plexippus, further data on recruitment of D. plexippus in other habitats and exposure estimates specific to additional habitats are needed.

Influence of alternate prey on predation of monarch butterfly larvae by the multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coccinellidae).
By Koch, R.L., R.C. Venette, and W.D. Hutchison.
Environmental Entomology 34(2): 410-416., 2005
BioOne

Koch, R.L., R.C. Venette, and W.D. Hutchison. 2005. Influence of alternate prey on predation of monarch butterfly (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) larvae by the multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Environmental Entomology 34(2): 410-416.

Abstract

An invasive, exotic coccinellid, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was recently identified as a potential hazard to immature monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). To further evaluate the risk of H. axyridis impacting D. plexippus, we evaluated the influence of an alternate prey, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe (Homoptera: Aphididae), on the predation rate of H. axyridis on D. plexippus larvae. When first-instar D. plexippus were placed in petri dish arenas with third-instar H. axyridis and varying densities of A. nerii, D. plexippus survival after 24 h increased significantly from 0% with 0 A. nerii present to 73% with 30 A. nerii present. In predation studies conducted in field cages, survival of D. plexippus larvae decreased with increasing densities of H. axyridis larvae and tended to increase with increasing A. nerii densities. These studies indicate that H. axyridis will feed on D. plexippus larvae in the presence of A. nerii, but that the presence of A. nerii lessens the severity of predation on D. plexippus.

Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), the third species of the genus to be found in the United States (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).
By Chapin, J.B., and V.A. Brou.
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 93(3): 630-635., 1991
Full PDF

Chapin, J.B., and V.A. Brou. 1991. Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), the third species of the genus to be found in the United States (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 93(3): 630-635.
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First published report of the Harmonia axyridis in N. Amer.

The Coccinellidae (Ladybird Beetles) of Minnesota
By Stehr, W.C. 1930.
Univ. Minn. Agr. Expt. Sta., St.Paul, 1930
Stehr, W.C. 1930. The Coccinellidae (Ladybird Beetles) of Minnesota. Univ. Minn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. 75. 54 pp.

Lady beetles as predators of insects other than Hemiptera.
By Evans, E.W.
Biological Control 51: 255-267., 2009
Full PDF

Evans, E.W. 2009. Lady beetles as predators of insects other than Hemiptera. Biological Control 51: 255-267.

(Or: Evans, E.W. Lady beetles as predators of insects other than Hemiptera. Biological Control (2009), doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.05.011)

Abstract:

Entomophagous lady beetles often prey on a variety of insects in addition to the Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha) for which they are well-known natural enemies. Many species (particularly those well-adapted for consuming aphids) appear opportunistic in their use of non-hemipteran prey.

Nutritional aspects of non-prey foods in the life histories of predaceous Coccinellidae.
By Lundgren, J.G.
Biological Control 51(2): 294–305., 2009
Full PDF

Lundgren, J.G. 2009. Nutritional aspects of non-prey foods in the life histories of predaceous Coccinellidae. Biological Control 51(2): 294–305.

Abstract (part):

Non-prey foods are an integral component of the diets of most predaceous coccinellids. Under field conditions, numerous coccinellids consume nectar, honeydew, pollen, fruit, vegetation, and fungus. These non-prey foods are used by coccinellids to increase survival when prey is scarce, reduce mortality during diapause, fuel migration, and enhance reproductive capacity.

Ecology and behaviour of the ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae).
By Hodek, I., H.F. van Emden & A. Honěk (eds).
Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Chichester, UK, xxxvii + 561 pp., 2012
Hodek, I., H.F. van Emden & A. Honěk (eds). 2012. Ecology and behaviour of the ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae). Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Chichester, UK, xxxvii + 561 pp.

from publisher's website:

Ladybirds are probably the best known predators of aphids and coccids in the world, though this greatly underestimates the diversity of their biology. Maximising their impact on their prey is an important element in modern conservation biological control of indigenous natural enemies in contrast to the classical approach of releasing alien species.

Causes and consequences of ladybug washups in the Finger Lakes region of New York State (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).
By Denemark, E. and J. Losey.
Entomologica Americana, 116: 78-88., 2010
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Denemark, E. and J. Losey. 2010. Causes and consequences of ladybug washups in the Finger Lakes region of New York State (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Entomologica Americana, 116: 78-88.

Abstract.—We searched for and collected data on a phenomenon known as ladybug washups, in which large numbers of coccinellids aggregate on the shores of major bodies of water. Our field season lasted from 5/23/2008 until 8/12/2008 in the Finger Lakes Region of New York, United States.

 
 
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