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Species Heterarthrus nemoratus - Late Birch Leaf Edgeminer

Sawfly - Heterarthrus nemoratus
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon ("Symphyta" - Sawflies, Horntails, and Wood Wasps)
Family Tenthredinidae (Common Sawflies)
Subfamily Heterarthrinae
Tribe Heterarthrini
Genus Heterarthrus
Species nemoratus (Late Birch Leaf Edgeminer)
Other Common Names
Birch Leaf Edge Miner(1)
Explanation of Names
Heterarthrus nemoratus (Fallén 1808)
4.5 mm(1)
Larva is 10mm(2)
native to Europe & w. Siberia, adventive in NA: Canada (widely distributed), AK & ne. US(4)(1)(5)
host: Betula (Birch)(3)
Life Cycle
Parthenogenic; the only birch leafmining sawfly to pupate in the leaf
Overwinters as larvar(2)
Females deposit their eggs in slits cut in the edges of mature leaves at all levels in the trees. The larvae feed in tissues between the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf, producing large, blister-like or blotch mines free of frass. Each full-grown larva constructs a cocoon or hibernaculum within its mine. The leaf then falls to the ground and the larva remains there throughout the winter.(2)
One generation per year.(2)
Introduced from Europe early in the 20th century(4); at one time a severe pest of wild birch, now a minor aesthetic pest(1)
In the 1920s and 1930s several parasites were imported. Two became established: Kratochviliana laricinellae and Phanomeris phyllotomae
Internet References
Species pages: Ellis (2007) (Europe)(6) | Edmunds (2007) (UK)(3) | Pitkin et al. (2007-) (UK)(7)