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Genus Amara - Seed-Eating Ground Beetles

cf. Harpalus - Amara carinata Carabid - Amara Amara? - Amara Amara? - Amara Seed-Eating Ground Beetle - Amara quenseli - female Seed-Eating Ground Beetle - Amara confusa - female Amara ellipsis? - Amara - female Amara
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Coleoptera (Beetles)
Suborder Adephaga (Ground and Water Beetles)
Family Carabidae (Ground Beetles)
Subfamily Harpalinae
Supertribe Pterostichitae
Tribe Zabrini (Seed-Eating Ground Beetles)
Genus Amara (Seed-Eating Ground Beetles)
Pronunciation
Amara is pronounced with different vowel quantities (short or long a) and accents (in capital letters) depending on the authoritative source: ă-MĀ-ră (Classification of Insects by CT Brues, Dorland's Medical Dictionary, Cassell's Latin Dictionary); ĂM-ă-ră (The Century Dictionary); ă-MĂ-ră (spoken by some carabidologists). [PWM note]
Explanation of Names
Amara Bonelli 1810
Greek a- (privative) + mairo 'to shine'(1)
Numbers
105 spp. in 11 subgenera in our area, ~600 spp. in 47 subgenera worldwide(1)
Size
5-11 mm(2), usually 6-9 mm
Identification
Medium-sized, usually oval beetles, many with coppery reflection, though some are black or brown(3). Typically encountered running about in the open. Most fully winged (macropterous)(4).
Species-level identification is difficult, even with technical keys.

A key to the subgenera of North American Amara appeared in American Beetles (2001:52,89-90). An early manuscript version of that key is presented here. It still needs editing to separate the eleven subgenera known in North America.

XXXII. KEY TO THE NEARCTIC GENERA OF ZABRINI [PWM update 2021.VIII.07]
1. Labial palpomere 2 bisetose; maxillary palpomeres 3 and 4 with numerous long setae; head with frontal impressions transverse, shallow; elytron with plica small, not very evident. PSEUDAMARA - 1 sp.
- Labial palpomere 2 plurisetose; maxillary palpomeres 3 and 4 glabreous, or palpomere 3 with few short setae near apex; head with frontal impressions more or less linear, moderately deep; elytron with plica moderately prominent. (Key XXXIV) AMARA - 105 spp.

XXXIV. Key to the Nearctic Subgenera of Amara (After Lindroth, 1968, with modifications)
1. Front tibia with apical spur trifid. ZEZEA - 9 spp.
- Front tibia with apical spur simple, not forked. 2

2(1). Prosternum with intercoxal process not margined at apex. CURTONOTUS - 15 spp.
- Prosternum with intercoxal process margined at apex- 3

3(2). Prosternum with intercoxal process apically plurisetose. 4
- Prosternum with intercoxal process apically asetose, or bi- or quadri-setose . 5

4(3). Pronotum with posterolateral impression delimited laterally by a pronounced carina; geotraphical range transcontinental. PERCOSIA - 1 sp.
- Pronotum with posterolateral carina suggested. Range: OK, TX. NEOPERCOSIA - 1 sp.

5(4). Pronotum basally more or less constricted, sinuate or not anteriad posterolateral angles, or very narrow, with dense and pronounced punctation over entire basal area; dorsal surface dark (rufopiceous to black ), dull or shiny, not metallic. BRADYTUS - fulva group - 10 spp.
- Pronotum basally broad, lateral margins slightly curved or straight anteriad posterolateral angles, but not sinuate; dorsal surface dark, dull, to metallic. 6

6(5). Elytron with stria 7 preapically with four to five punctures; geographical range, California. BRADYTUS - insignus group - 2 spp.
- Elytron with stria 7 preapically without punctures, or with number of punctures less than four. AMARA s. str. (aurata group - 1 sp, cupreolata group - 5 spp, impuncticollis group - 6 spp, incertae sedis - 17 spp), CELIA - 12 spp, PARACELIA - 1 sp, AMAROCELIA - 12 spp, XENOCELIA - 12 spp.
Range
mostly Holarctic; across NA(4)
Habitat
Commonly found on wet sand/mud or beneath logs or rocks in damp areas(3), though tend to favor dry open areas in these habitats(4)
Food
Most feed on seeds; a few (e.g., A. obesa), on grasshopper eggs(5)(3)
Life Cycle
Some species overwinter as adults(5)
Works Cited
1.Catalogue of Geadephaga (Coleoptera, Adephaga) of America, north of Mexico
Bousquet Y. 2012. ZooKeys 245: 1–1722.
2.A Manual of Common Beetles of Eastern North America
Dillon, Elizabeth S., and Dillon, Lawrence. 1961. Row, Peterson, and Company.
3.Ground Beetles and Wrinkled Bark Beetles of South Carolina
Janet Ciegler. 2000. Clemson University.
4.American Beetles, Volume I: Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia
Arnett, R.H., Jr., and M. C. Thomas. (eds.). 2000. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL.
5.An illustrated descriptive catalogue of the Coleoptera or beetles (exclusive of the Rhynchophora) known to occur in Indiana.
Blatchley, W. S. 1910. Indianapolis,Nature Pub. Co.