~30 spp. in 15 genera in our area, >1,700 spp. in ~90 genera worldwide (of which 46 in the New World)(1)(2)
hosts: various dicotyledons(1)
The larvae carry their cast skins and fecal material attached to spines arising from the posterior end of their body, a structure called an "anal fork." The anal fork is movable, and is used to hold the debris over the back of the body, forming a "shield" which deters predation.
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc.
. Review of the tortoise beetle genera of the tribe Cassidini