~35 species north of Mexico(1)(2)(3)
, but most are found in the East. Over 300 species worldwide, most of them in Central America and tropical South America.
All Condylostylus hold the wings at an angle relative to the abdomen when at rest (not in flight or dead). This is not found in species of Sciapus, Amblypsilopus, or Mesorhaga, who hold their wings flat when at rest. See below for more info.
The character used in the literature to define Condylostylus
is a pair of setose mounds on the frons bearing the vertical setae.(4)
When present, wing markings in the form of two bands joined along the costa will distinguish Condylostylus
from other North American Sciapodinae. In addition, the following combination of typical, but not universal, characters can help ID the genus:
vertex deeply excavated
M distinctly forked (unforked in Mesorhaga)
frons usually with pale bristles in addition to black (usually only black in Sciapus)
setae of calypter usually black (usually pale in Sciapus)
scutellum with two pairs of bristles (outer pair reduced or absent in Sciapus)
In many species, vein M1 is more sharply curved towards the base of the wing than in other genera.
Males have narrow abdomens, whereas females have round abdomens that taper to a point.
Temperate North America, the Neotropics, Pacific islands, Africa
Typically found at the edges of moist forests on exposed leaf foliage
Adults feed on soft-bodied invertebrates
Larvae develop in wet to dry soil and pupate in cocoons made up of soil particles cemented together. Adults mate after elaborate and often unique behavior, involving the males displaying their legs to the female.
Different species are commonly found together, even on adjacent leaves.
Curran C.H. (1942) American Diptera. Bull. AMNH 80: 51-84 (key to Laxina
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