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Species Protoxaea gloriosa

Bee - Protoxaea gloriosa - male Protoxaea gloriosa? - Protoxaea gloriosa - male Eucerini? - Protoxaea gloriosa - female Eucerini? - Protoxaea gloriosa - female Bee on flower - Protoxaea gloriosa unkn bee - Protoxaea gloriosa Bee - Protoxaea gloriosa - male ??? - Protoxaea gloriosa
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon (Aculeata - Ants, Bees and Stinging Wasps)
No Taxon (Apoidea (clade Anthophila) - Bees)
Family Andrenidae (Miner, Fairy, Allied Panurgine, and Oxaeine Bees)
Subfamily Oxaeinae (Oxaeine Bees)
Genus Protoxaea
Species gloriosa (Protoxaea gloriosa)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Megacilissa gloriosa Fox, 1893; Oxaea tristis Gribodo, 1894; Protoxaea gloriosa pallida Cockerell, 1934
Explanation of Names
Author: Fox, 1893
Deserts and xeric grasslands
Most numerous in late summer following monsoon rains
Polylectic bee (generalist pollen/ nectar collector) frequenting especially Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), and Kallstroemia grandiflora (Arizona caltrop), both in Zygophyllaceae (Caltrop family). Other plants visited: Solanum elaeagnifolium, Solanum rostratum (Solanaceae/ Nightshade family), Calliandra schottii, Senna bauhinioides (formerly in genus Cassia; both Calliandra and Senna in Legume family/ Fabaceae) [see Cazier & Linsley, 1974, and Hurd & Linsley, 1975, references below]. The Hosts section on its Discover Life species page lists known floral associations based on specimen records and images.
The most common oxaeine in Arizona
Print References
Cazier, M. A., and E. G. Linsley. 1974. Foraging Behavior of Some Bees and Wasps at Kallstroemia grandiflora Flowers in Southern Arizona and New Mexico. American Museum Novitates, No. 2546. (PDF)

Hurd, P. D., Jr., and E. G. Linsley. 1975. The Principal Larrea Bees of the Southwestern United States (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 193.(PDF)

Hurd, P. D., Jr., and E. G. Linsley. 1976. The bee family Oxaeidae with a revision of the North American species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 220: 1-75.

Rozen, J. G., Jr. 1965. Phylogenetic-taxonomic significance of last instar of Protoxaea gloriosa Fox, with descriptions of first and last instars. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 72: 223-230.
Internet References