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Family Ripiphoridae - Wedge-shaped Beetles

Wedge-Shaped Beetle - Macrosiagon sayi - female Wasp? - Ripiphorus fasciatus-complex - female Phengodes ? - Macrosiagon limbata - male  Ripiphorus male? - Ripiphorus - male Female Macrosiagon 2 - Macrosiagon flavipennis - female Macrosiagon? - Macrosiagon cruenta beetle 3 - Ripiphorus - male - female black and yellow - Macrosiagon dimidiata
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Coleoptera (Beetles)
Suborder Polyphaga (Water, Rove, Scarab, Long-horned, Leaf and Snout Beetles)
No Taxon (Series Cucujiformia)
Superfamily Tenebrionoidea (Fungus, Bark, Darkling and Blister Beetles)
Family Ripiphoridae (Wedge-shaped Beetles)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Rhipiphoridae (an alternate spelling of Ripiphoidae...see here and 1st paragraph here)
Explanation of Names
Ripiphoridae Gemminger 1870 (1853)
Numbers
~50 spp. in 6 genera in our area, ~400 spp. in ~40 genera worldwide(1)(2); local faunas: 9 spp. in 3 genera in Canada(3), 10(3) in NC(4), 11(3) in FL(5), 21(2) in CA(6), 5(2) in NH & ME(7), 6(3) in OK(8)...
4 out of 5 subfamilies are represented in our area
Size
3-15 mm
Identification
Small to medium-sized beetles, sometimes found on flowers. Many have fan-like (flabellate) antennae, esp. males. Abdomen blunt. Tarsal formula 5-5-4.
Genera of our fauna are rather easy to tell apart based on appearance; species identification of Ripiphorus may be extremely difficult even with specimens in hand.
In the east, Macrosiagon are usually black and red to yellow, ca. 9 mm, with elytra almost covering abdomen, and scutellum covered by pronotum; Rhipiphorus have very short elytra and are smaller, ~4-6 mm; and Pelecotoma flavipes (4-5 mm) has full-length elytra and is piceous-black with yellowish appendages(9)
Keys in(10)(11)(12)
Range
Worldwide and throughout much of NA, more diverse towards the south; in our area, Ripiphorus and Macrosiagon are widespread, Pelecotoma ranges throughout ne. US and adjacent Canada, 2 genera are restricted to sw. US (OK-TX-AZ), and one to FL)(1)
Food
Parasitize bees/wasps (Ripiphorinae), wood-boring beetle larvae (Pelecotominae), cockroaches (Ripidiinae)(1)
Life Cycle
Hypermetamorphic; bee/wasp parasites lay eggs on/near flowers, sometimes inside flower buds. Larvae attach to visiting bees and are taken back to nest, where they are internal parasites of larval hymenoptera, in some cases only in early stages. Some are reported to feed on leaves in later stages. Adults are short-lived.(13)(14)(15)
Ripiphorid triungulins (1st instar larvae) under bee's abdomen:
See Also
Works Cited
1.American Beetles, Volume II: Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea
Arnett, R.H., Jr., M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley and J. H. Frank. (eds.). 2002. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL.
2.Order Coleoptera Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang Z.-Q. (ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification...
Ślipiński S.A., Leschen R.A.B., Lawrence J.F. 2011. Zootaxa 3148: 203–208.
3.Bousquet Y., ed. (1991) Checklist of the beetles of Canada and Alaska
4.NCSU insect collection species inventory database
5.A Distributional Checklist of the Beetles (Coleoptera) of Florida
6.California Beetle Project
7.University of New Hampshire Insect and Arachnid Collections
8.Checklist of the Coleoptera of Oklahoma
9.How to Know the Beetles
Ross H. Arnett, N. M. Downie, H. E. Jaques. 1980. Wm. C. Brown Publishers.
10.Revision of the Rhipiphoridae of North and Central America
Ezekiel Rivnay. 1929. American Entomological Society.
11.A review of the genus Macrosiagon in Mexico, with notes on Rhipiphorus (Coleoptera, Rhipiphoridae)
Patricia Vaurie. 1955. American Museum of Natural History.
12.The Rhipiphoridae of California (Coleptera)
Linsley E.G., MacSwain J.W. 1951. Bull. Calif. Insect Surv. 1: 79-88.
13.Peterson Field Guides: Beetles
Richard E. White. 1983. Houghton Mifflin Company.
14.A Dictionary of Entomology
George Gordh, David H. Headrick. 2003. CABI Publishing.
15.The Wasps
Howard Ensign Evans, Mary Jane West Eberhard. 1970. University of Michigan Press.