Furniss, R.L. and Carolin, V.M. 1977. Western forest insects. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Misc. Publ. 1339, 654 pp.
Authors: Robert Livingston Furniss, Valentine M. Carolin, Frederick Paul Keen
This manual concerns itself with insects and related organisms in forests and woodlands of North America, west of the 100th Meridian and north of Mexico. ("Eastern Forest Insects," by Whiteford L. Baker (1972) covers the area east of the 100th Meridian.) The intended primary users are practicing foresters and others responsible for preventing or minimizing insect-caused damage to forests and wood products. Thus, major purposes of the manual are to facilitate recognition of insects and their damage and to provide needed information for determining a course of action. The manual should also be useful to students of forestry and entomology, professional entomologists, extension specialists, forestry technicians, forest owners, forest recreationists, teachers, and others.
This manual supersedes "Insect Enemies of Western Forests," (Misc. Pub. No. 273), by F. Paul Keen, issued in 1938 and last revised in 1952. In this manual the discussion of insects is arranged in taxonomic order rather than by part of the tree affected. The number and kinds of insects and the geographic area covered are greatly increased. Photographs are used as a principal means of identification; no keys, either to the insects or their work, are included. No specific chemicals are mentioned.
Since the last revision of the manual by Keen, literature on technical forest entomology has been expanded greatly. ... Thus, an extensive bibliography is included. The literature search was terminated during 1973, but some subsequent articles are cited because of their pertinence.
"The preparation of an up-to-date manual on western forest insects was assigned to the authors in 1967 by Dr. James A. Beal, then director of Forest Insect and Disease Research, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Inspiration and encouragement came from F. Paul Keen, whose "Insect Enemies of Western Forests" served as a classic handbook for 35 years."