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fumiferana group

Moth - Choristoneura Archips packardiana - Choristoneura Tortricid Moth - Choristoneura Moth6 - Choristoneura Tortricidae: Choristoneura fumiferana - Choristoneura moth - Choristoneura fumiferana tortricid? moth - Choristoneura fumiferana Spruce Budworm - Choristoneura fumiferana
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Tortricoidea (Tortricid Moths)
Family Tortricidae (Tortricid Moths)
Subfamily Tortricinae
Tribe Archipini
Genus Choristoneura
No Taxon fumiferana group
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Also referred to as Choristoneura lambertiana species group or complex which may be more appropriate. The use of Choristoneura fumiferana group is due to that species being the oldest in the group. MPG has previously referred to this group as Choristoneura occidentalis complex.
Choristoneura freemani - The Nearctic species, Choristoneura occidentalis, described by Freeman (1967), has become the younger homonym of a species found in South Africa due to a change in the genus of the latter species. Razowski (2008) proposed changing the name of the Nearctic species to Choristoneura freemani - see paper here. Some authorities now follow that change.
Many, if not most, western specimens in this group may not be identifiable from photos.
As of 2010, species limits in this group are still being worked out. For more information see Dr. Lisa Margaret Lumley's thesis, "Species delimitation in the Choristoneura fumiferana species complex (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)", here.
Jun-Aug (BG data)
Per Jason J. Dombroskie, the following is a list of closely related species which belong to this group:
3641 Choristoneura biennis (Freeman, 1967) - [synonymized with freemani by Brunet et al. (2016)]
3645 Choristoneura carnana (Barnes & Busck, 1920) - Images of at MPG
3638 Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens, 1865) Images of at MPG
3644 Choristoneura lambertiana (Busck, 1915) - Images of at MPG
3640 Choristoneura freemani Razowski, 2008 - Images of at MPG
3642 Choristoneura orae (Freeman, 1967) - Images of at MPG
3643 Choristoneura pinus (Freeman, 1953) - Images of at MPG
3639 Choristoneura retiniana (Walsingham, 1879) - Images of at MPG
Print References
Lumley, L.M. & F.H. Sperling, 2010. Integrating morphology and mitochondrial DNA for species delimitation within the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) cryptic species complex (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Systemic Entomology. 35(3): 416-428.
Lumley, L.M. & F.H. Sperling, 2011. Utility of microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA for species delimitation in the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) species complex (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 58(2): 232-243.
Brunet, B.M., G.S. Blackburn, K. Muirhead, L.M. Lumley, B. Boyle, R.C. Lévesque, M. Cusson, F.A.H. Sperling, 2016. Two's company, three's a crowd: new insights on spruce budworm species boundaries using genotyping-by-sequencing in an integrative species assessment (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Systematic Entomology, 42: 317-328.
Internet References