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carnea-group

Glad I'm not a tiny critter - Chrysoperla plorabunda Green lacewing - Chrysoperla downesi Unidentifie - Chrysoperla plorabunda Green lacewing larva  - Chrysoperla plorabunda Green lacewing cocoon - Chrysoperla plorabunda Chrysopidae, Green Lacewing, emerged - Chrysoperla plorabunda Chysopidae: Chrysoperla - Chrysoperla Chrysopa oculata - Chrysoperla
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Neuroptera (Antlions, Lacewings, and Allies)
Suborder Hemerobiiformia (Lacewings and Allies)
Family Chrysopidae (Green Lacewings)
Subfamily Chrysopinae (Typical Green Lacewings)
Tribe Chrysopini
Genus Chrysoperla (Common Green Lacewings)
No Taxon carnea-group
Numbers
4 primary spp. in our area(1), 2 range into Canada(1):
1. C. adamsi (western, United States: CA, ID, OR, WA)(1)
2. C. downesi (western with northeastern pocket, Canada: BC, SK; United States: AK, AZ, CA, ID, MA, MT, NH, NY, VT)(1)
3. C. johnsoni (western, United States: AZ, CA, ID, OR, WA)(1)
4. C. plorabunda (widespread, Canada: AB, BC, MB, SK; United States: AZ, CO, CT, DC, FL, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, TN, TX, WA, WI)(1)

An additional 2 spp. previously known from outside the US are recently reported, based on courtship song analysis, with such highly restricted ranges as to barely occur in our area. Yet another additional species has been newly described from the mountains of California.
5. C. agilis (c. AK)(2)
6. C. calocedrii (high elevation CA: Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, & San Diego) - notably lacks red facial markings
7. C. zastrowi sillemi (desert southwest CA & AZ: Riverside, Imperial, & Yuma counties)(3) - notably diapause with purple markings
Identification
Our members of the carnea-group are noted for their rounded hind wingtips and often have two stripes on the genae instead of one as in the pudica-group. Species identification within this group is problematic, and reliable separation of species requires analysis of their courtship song. Our species are not readily distinguishable based on morphology.(4)


A few traits can be of use with the species in our range but should be used with caution as these traits can be unreliable. These differences are minor, and overlap is well documented in the literature.(5) Brooks (1994) gives the following traits that may be useful in separating some specimens:(4)

1. C. adamsi: red stripe on genae, maxillary palps black dorsally, median stripe yellowish-white, short black setae, wing venation green, fore wingtips pointed

2. C. downesi: one black and one red stripe on genae, maxillary palps black, often with a red spot behind the eye (especially western specimens), median stripe white, short black setae, wing venation mostly green with black cross-veins and often black gradates, fore wingtips pointed; note: not always separable from C. plorabunda when lacking the red spot behind the eye (more typical of eastern specimens)

3. C. johnsoni: red stripe on gena with occasional second brown stripe, occasionally with a red spot behind the eye, maxillary palps brown dorsally, median stripe yellow, pronotum with gray lateral stripe and often reddish spot, setae short and either pale or black, fore wing rounded, wing cross-veins and gradates either green or black, abdomen occasionally with brown spot on 2nd segment, fore wingtips rounded

4. C. plorabunda: brownish-black mark often overlaid with red on genae, maxillary palps either unmarked or with dorsal black stripe, never with a spot behind the eye, median stripe yellow/white, setae short and either pale or dark, wing gradates green, fore wingtips tapered to rounded; note: not always separable from C. downesi

By range, C. plorabunda is the only member of the carnea-group currently reported from the central and southeastern US. Apart from a population of C. downesi in the area from New York to New Hampshire, C. plorabunda is the only species in the group with known occurrence in the eastern half of the US.(1) While C. downesi is technically the only species reported by Adams in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont, the proximity to a known, and rather extensive, population of C. plorabunda suggests caution be taken against identification of species purely by occurrence records.
Range

Left to right: C. adamsi, C. downesi, C. johnsoni, and C. plorabunda
Remarks
True Chrysoperla carnea does not occur in North America and is exclusively a European species (itself not identifiable from photographs alone and requiring song analysis). Many web resources erroneously report this species due to using a currently invalidated definition of the species.
Works Cited
1.Species catalog of the Neuroptera, Megaloptera, and Raphidioptera of America North of Mexico
Penny N.D., Adams P.A., Stange L.A. 1997. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 50: 39-114.
2.Song Analysis Reveals a Permanent Population of the Mediterranean Lacewing Chrysoperla agilis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Living i
Charles S. Henry, Stephen J. Brooks, James B. Johnson, Marta M. Wells, & Peter Duelli. 2011. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 649-657.
3.Confirming World-wide Distribution of an Agriculturally Important Lacewing, Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi, …
Zoe Mandese (under Charles S. Henrey and Chris Simon). 2018. University of Connecticut.
4.A taxonomic review of the common green lacewing genus Chrysoperla
Brooks SJ. 1994. Bull. Br. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 63(2): 137-210 .
5.Hidden Taxonomic Diversity within Chrysoperla plorabunda (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): Two New Species Based on Courtship Songs
Henry, C.S.; Wells M.[L.]M.; Pupedis, R.J. 1993. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 86:1-13.