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Subfamily Euphorinae

Tiny, pretty wasp - Chrysopophthorus americanus - male Wasp ogling beetle - female Braconid Wasp/Ant Parasite - Elasmosoma - female Hymenoptera Very small wasp Parasitica Coleomegilla maculata guarding Dinocampus coccinellae cocoon.  - Dinocampus coccinellae Dinocampus coccinellae - female
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon ("Parasitica" (parasitic Apocrita))
Superfamily Ichneumonoidea (Braconids and Ichneumons)
Family Braconidae (Braconid Wasps)
Subfamily Euphorinae
Pronunciation
YOU for EYE nee
Numbers
31 genera in the New World (Shaw, S.R. 1997. Family Euphorinae. In: (1))
Size
Most are less than 5 mm long.
Identification
In some, first metasomal segment is petiolate (long, narrow)
various degrees of wing vein and cell reduction. In all except 2 genera (Aridelus and Chrysopophthorus), the 2nd submarginal cell is missing. See diagram of generalized braconid wing cells

For terms and diagrams showing braconid wing veins and body parts, see pp. 98-99 in (2)
Range
World wide. In the New World, most diverse in the tropics.
Food
Generally, adult insects in a wide diversity of orders and families across this subfamily. Some examples:
Genera that attack beetles: Periletus Nees, Dinocampus Foerster, Microctonus Wesmael, Centistes Haliday.
Hymenoptera: Syntretus Foerster
Neuroptera: Chrysopopthorus Goidanich
Nymphal and adult Heteroptera and Psocoptera: Peristenus Foerster, Leiophron Nees, Aridelus, Wesmaelia Foerster, Holdawayella Loan, Euphoriella Ashmead. (Shaw S.R. 1997. Subfamily Euphorinae. In:(1))
Life Cycle
Solitary or, in a few, gregarious, koinobiont endoparasitoids of adult insects. (Shaw, S.R. 1997. Family Euphorinae. In:(1)). For life cycle info and terminology Click here.
Remarks
The habit of euphorine braconids of attacking the adult stage of hosts is unusual in Hymenoptera.
Several species of Peristenus and Leiophron are used as biocontrol agents for lygus bugs (Loan and S. Shaw 1987) and other pests in family Miridae (Loan, 1980).
Dinocampus coccinellae (Shrank), which attacks ladybird beetles, is sometimes considered a pest because the host is a beneficial insect that attacks aphids. But D. coccinellae is generally not sufficiently abundant to seriously affect ladybird beetle populations.
Print References
Loan, C.C. 1980. Plant bug hosts (Heteroptera: Miridae) of some euphorine parasites (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) near Belleville, Ontario, Canada. Le Naturaliste Canadiene 101: 821-860.

Loan, C.C. and S.R. Shaw. 1987. Euphorine parasites of Lygus and Adelphocoris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Heteroptera: Miridae). Pp. 69-75 In: Economic importance and biological control of Lygus and Adelphocoris in North America. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, ARS-64.

Shaw, S.R. 1988. Euphorine phylogeny: the evolution of diversity in host-utilization by parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Ecological Entomology 13: 323-335.

Shaw, S.R. 1997. Subfamily Euphorinae. In (1)
Internet References
Science direct. Introduced parasitoid, Peristenus digoneutis.
Works Cited
1.Manual of the New World Genera of the Family Braconidae (Hymenoptera)
Wharton, R.A., P.M. Marsh, M.J. Sharkey (Eds). 1997. International Society of Hymenopterists.
2.A Revision of the Tetrasphaeropyx Ashm. Lineage of the Genus Aleiodes Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae)
Fortier, Joseph C. 2009. Magnolia Press.