Identification, Images, & Information
For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada

Genus Agulla

Snakefly - Agulla - female Snakefly - Agulla - female Insect on horticultural plant - Agulla - female Snakefly, Agulla - Agulla - male Snakefly on Poison Oak - Agulla - male Raphidiopteran - Agulla - female Snakefly - Agulla bicolor Snakefly - Agulla
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Raphidioptera (Snakeflies)
Family Raphidiidae
Genus Agulla
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Raphidia
Explanation of Names
Agulla Navás 1914
Numbers
16 spp. in our area(1)
Identification
Seen dorsally, the head has a "kite-like" shape; ocelli are present (though often very hard to discern); and the yellowish-brown pterostigma (on edge of wing, just before apex) is bisected by a veinlet.
A key to species appears on pg. 114 of Carpenter (1936). It's more complete than that of Banks (see "Interet References" below). Both are old, but Carpenter is still useful. The opus magnum by the Aspocks is probably the best reference currently available...but very hard to obtain, with a major emphasis on male genitalia (thus not very useful for the vast majority of our field photos), and of limited utility for those who can't read German.
Range
w. NA (BC-CA to AB-CO-TX)(1)
Life Cycle
A. bicolor in c. TX have been taken from March to May, primarily on Juniperus ashei(2)
See Also
See the info page for order Raphidioptera for further info on snakeflies.
Print References
Aspöck, H., U. Aspöck, and H. Rausch. (1991) Die Raphidiopteren der Erde. Goecke & Evers Verlag, Dürerstrasse 13, D-4150 Krefeld, Germany. 1648 DM. Volume 1, 730 pages. Volume 2, 550 pages, with 3065 illustrations and 206 distribution maps.
Carpenter, F, M. (1936) Revision of the Nearctic Raphidiodea (Recent and Fossil). Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts & Sci., 71: 89-157.
Woglum, R. S. & McGregor, E. A. (1958). Observations on the life history and morphology of Agulla bractea Carpenter (Neuroptera: Raphidiodea: Raphidiidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 51:129-141 (Full Text)
Woglum, R. S. & McGregor, E. A. (1959). Observations on the life history and morphology of Agulla astuta (Banks) (Neuroptera: Raphidiodea: Raphidiidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 52:489-502 (Full Text)
Woglum, R. S. & McGregor, E. A. (1964). A new snakefly from southern California (Neuroptera: Raphidiidae). Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, 63:201-203 (Full Text)
Internet References
A 1911 key for Raphidia, written by Nathan Banks, treats 9 currently recognized taxa corresponding to the modern names Alena (2 species: minuta and distincta), and Agulla (7 species: assimilis; adnixa; astuta; bicolor; "arizonica"=assimilis; "occulta"=bicolor; and "oblita"=adnixa).
Works Cited
1.Species catalog of the Neuroptera, Megaloptera, and Raphidioptera of America North of Mexico
Penny N.D., Adams P.A., Stange L.A. 1997. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 50: 39-114.
2.Abundance and distribution of potential arthropod prey species in a typical Golden-cheeked Warbler habitat.
Quinn, M.A. 2000. Unpublished Thesis. Texas A&M University, College Station. ix + 182 pp.