Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Seen dorsally, the head has a "kite-like" shape; ocelli are present (though often very hard to discern); and the yellowish-brown pterostigma (on edge of wing, just before apex) is bisected by a veinlet.
A key to species appears on pg. 114 of Carpenter (1936). It's more complete than that of Banks (see "Interet References" below). Both are old, but Carpenter is still useful. The opus magnum by the Aspocks is probably the best reference currently available...but very hard to obtain, with a major emphasis on male genitalia (thus not very useful for the vast majority of our field photos), and of limited utility for those who can't read German.
w. NA (BC-CA to AB-CO-TX)(1)
in c. TX have been taken from March to May, primarily on Juniperus ashei(2)
See the info page for order Raphidioptera
for further info on snakeflies.
Aspöck, H., U. Aspöck, and H. Rausch. (1991) Die Raphidiopteren der Erde. Goecke & Evers Verlag, Dürerstrasse 13, D-4150 Krefeld, Germany. 1648 DM. Volume 1, 730 pages. Volume 2, 550 pages, with 3065 illustrations and 206 distribution maps.
Carpenter, F, M. (1936) Revision of the Nearctic Raphidiodea (Recent and Fossil). Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts & Sci., 71: 89-157.
Woglum, R. S. & McGregor, E. A. (1958). Observations on the life history and morphology of Agulla bractea
Carpenter (Neuroptera: Raphidiodea: Raphidiidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 51:129-141 (Full Text
Woglum, R. S. & McGregor, E. A. (1959). Observations on the life history and morphology of Agulla astuta
(Banks) (Neuroptera: Raphidiodea: Raphidiidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 52:489-502 (Full Text
Woglum, R. S. & McGregor, E. A. (1964). A new snakefly from southern California (Neuroptera: Raphidiidae). Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, 63:201-203 (Full Text
A 1911 key for Raphidia
, written by Nathan Banks, treats 9 currently recognized taxa corresponding to the modern names Alena
(2 species: minuta
), and Agulla
(7 species: assimilis
; and "oblita"=adnixa