Identification, Images, & Information
For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada
Clickable Guide
Moths Butterflies Flies Caterpillars Flies Dragonflies Flies Mantids Cockroaches Bees and Wasps Walkingsticks Earwigs Ants Termites Hoppers and Kin Hoppers and Kin Beetles True Bugs Fleas Grasshoppers and Kin Ticks Spiders Scorpions Centipedes Millipedes

Fall Fund Drive


Species Phanaeus vindex - Rainbow Scarab

Major male and female - Phanaeus vindex - male - female Phanaeus - Phanaeus vindex - female Grubs - Phanaeus vindex Rainbow Beetle? - Phanaeus vindex Major Male - Phanaeus vindex - male Rainbow Scarab  - Phanaeus vindex Phanaeus_vindex_ZE.5663 - Phanaeus vindex - male Phanaeus vindex - male
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Coleoptera (Beetles)
Suborder Polyphaga (Water, Rove, Scarab, Long-horned, Leaf and Snout Beetles)
Superfamily Scarabaeoidea (Scarab, Stag and Bess Beetles)
Family Scarabaeidae (Scarab Beetles)
Subfamily Scarabaeinae (Dung Beetles)
Tribe Phanaeini
Genus Phanaeus (Rainbow Scarabs)
Species vindex (Rainbow Scarab)
Explanation of Names
Phanaeus (Phanaeus) vindex MacLeay, 1819
vindex (L). 'a defender' (1)
7 spp. n. of Mex. (2)
11-22 mm (3)
Pronotum coppery red, elytra green. Pronotum of "major" male has sharp posterior angles.

Major males, depicted, are easier to differentiate than minor males (w/ short horns) and females (w/ very short horns).
e US to AZ (AZ-FL-ME-NE) / n. MEX. (3), (the most widespread Phanaeus in the US)
broad ecological parameters from Sonoran Desert to subtropical Florida to New England (3)
mostly: Apr-Sep (yr round in FL) (BG data)
Life Cycle
may hybridize with P. difformis (3)
common (BG data)
See Also
- Range: sc US sandy areas
Det. E. G. Riley, 1994
Print References
Blume, R.R. and A. Aga. 1978. Observations on ecological and phylogenetic relationships of Phanaeus difformis LeConte and Phanaeus vindex MacLeay (Coleopetera: Scarabaeidae) in North America. Southwestern Entomologist 3: 113-120.
Harpootlian, pp. 19-20 (4)
Internet References
Awesome photo -
Works Cited
1.Dictionary of Word Roots and Combining Forms
Donald J. Borror. 1960. Mayfield Publishing Company.
2.American Beetles, Volume II: Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea
Arnett, R.H., Jr., M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley and J. H. Frank. (eds.). 2002. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL.
3.Revision of Phanaeus MacLeay, A New World genus of scarabaeine dung beetles
Edmonds, W.D. 1994. 1994. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Contributions to Science 443.
4.Scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) of South Carolina
Phillip J. Harpootlian. 2001. Clemson University Public Service.