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Photos of insects and people from the 2022 BugGuide gathering in New Mexico, July 20-24

National Moth Week was July 23-31, 2022! See moth submissions.

Photos of insects and people from the Spring 2021 gathering in Louisiana, April 28-May 2

Photos of insects and people from the 2019 gathering in Louisiana, July 25-27

Photos of insects and people from the 2018 gathering in Virginia, July 27-29

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Species Phanaeus vindex - Rainbow Scarab

Rainbow Scarab - Phanaeus vindex - male Major Male - Phanaeus vindex - male scarab - Phanaeus vindex - female Phanaeus - Phanaeus vindex - male Major Male - Phanaeus vindex - male Phanaeus vindex MacLeay - Phanaeus vindex - male Phanaeus vindex male - Phanaeus vindex - male very colorful scarab - Phanaeus vindex
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Coleoptera (Beetles)
Suborder Polyphaga (Water, Rove, Scarab, Long-horned, Leaf and Snout Beetles)
Superfamily Scarabaeoidea (Scarab, Stag and Bess Beetles)
Family Scarabaeidae (Scarab Beetles)
Subfamily Scarabaeinae (Dung Beetles)
Tribe Phanaeini
Genus Phanaeus (Rainbow Scarabs)
Species vindex (Rainbow Scarab)
Explanation of Names
Phanaeus (Phanaeus) vindex MacLeay 1819
vindex 'defender' (1)
11-22 mm(2)
Pronotum coppery red, elytra green. Pronotum of "major" male has sharp posterior angles.

Major males, depicted, are easier to differentiate than minor males (w/ short horns) and females (w/ very short horns).
e US to AZ (ME-FL to NE-AZ); n. Mexico(2) (the most widespread Phanaeus in the US)
broad ecological parameters from Sonoran Desert to subtropical Florida to New England(2)
Life Cycle
may hybridize with P. difformis(2)
Print References
Blume R.R., Aga A. (1978) Observations on ecological and phylogenetic relationships of Phanaeus difformis LeConte and Phanaeus vindex MacLeay (Coleopetera: Scarabaeidae) in North America. Southw. Entomol. 3: 113-120.
Works Cited
1.Dictionary of Word Roots and Combining Forms
Donald J. Borror. 1960. Mayfield Publishing Company.
2.Revision of Phanaeus MacLeay, A New World genus of scarabaeine dung beetles
Edmonds, W.D. 1994. 1994. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Contributions to Science 443.