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Species Phanaeus vindex - Rainbow Scarab

Rainbow Scarab - Phanaeus vindex - male Dung Beetle - Phanaeus vindex Old P. vindex specimen - Phanaeus vindex Rainbow Beetle? - Phanaeus vindex Iridescent Beetle (Phanaeus sp?) - Phanaeus vindex Phanaeus vindex - male Phanaeus_vindex_ZE.5663 - Phanaeus vindex - male Phanaeus vindex female - Phanaeus vindex - female
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Coleoptera (Beetles)
Suborder Polyphaga (Water, Rove, Scarab, Long-horned, Leaf and Snout Beetles)
Superfamily Scarabaeoidea (Scarab, Stag and Bess Beetles)
Family Scarabaeidae (Scarab Beetles)
Subfamily Scarabaeinae (Dung Beetles)
Tribe Phanaeini
Genus Phanaeus (Rainbow Scarabs)
Species vindex (Rainbow Scarab)
Explanation of Names
Phanaeus (Phanaeus) vindex MacLeay, 1819
vindex (L). 'a defender' (1)
Numbers
7 spp. n. of Mex. (2)
Size
11-22 mm (3)
Identification
Pronotum coppery red, elytra green. Pronotum of "major" male has sharp posterior angles.

Major males, depicted, are easier to differentiate than minor males (w/ short horns) and females (w/ very short horns).
Range
e US to AZ (AZ-FL-ME-NE) / n. MEX. (3), (the most widespread Phanaeus in the US)
Habitat
broad ecological parameters from Sonoran Desert to subtropical Florida to New England (3)
Season
mostly: Apr-Sep (yr round in FL) (BG data)
Life Cycle
may hybridize with P. difformis (3)
Remarks
common (BG data)
See Also
- Range: sc US sandy areas
Det. E. G. Riley, 1994
Print References
Blume, R.R. and A. Aga. 1978. Observations on ecological and phylogenetic relationships of Phanaeus difformis LeConte and Phanaeus vindex MacLeay (Coleopetera: Scarabaeidae) in North America. Southwestern Entomologist 3: 113-120.
Harpootlian, pp. 19-20 (4)
Internet References
Awesome photo - living-jewels.com
Works Cited
1.Dictionary of Word Roots and Combining Forms
Donald J. Borror. 1960. Mayfield Publishing Company.
2.American Beetles, Volume II: Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea
Arnett, R.H., Jr., M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley and J. H. Frank. (eds.). 2002. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL.
3.Revision of Phanaeus MacLeay, A New World genus of scarabaeine dung beetles
Edmonds, W.D. 1994. 1994. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Contributions to Science 443.
4.Scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) of South Carolina
Phillip J. Harpootlian. 2001. Clemson University Public Service.