Explanation of Names
Phanaeus (Phanaeus) vindex MacLeay, 1819
(L). 'a defender' (1)
Pronotum coppery red, elytra green. Pronotum of "major" male has sharp posterior angles.
Major males, depicted, are easier to differentiate than minor males (w/ short horns) and females (w/ very short horns).
e US to AZ (AZ-FL-ME-NE) / n. MEX. (3)
, (the most widespread Phanaeus
in the US)
broad ecological parameters from Sonoran Desert to subtropical Florida to New England (3)
mostly: Apr-Sep (yr round in FL) (BG data)
- Range: sc US sandy areas
Det. E. G. Riley, 1994
Blume, R.R. and A. Aga. 1978. Observations on ecological and phylogenetic relationships of Phanaeus difformis LeConte and Phanaeus vindex MacLeay (Coleopetera: Scarabaeidae) in North America. Southwestern Entomologist 3: 113-120.
Harpootlian, pp. 19-20 (4)