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Books
Data

Subgenus Anthidium, Typical Woolcarder Bees

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The Biology and External Morphology of Bees: With a Synopsis of the Genera of Northwestern America
By W. P. Stephen, G.E. Bohart, and P.F. Torchio
Agricultural Experiment Station, Oregon State University-Corvallis, 1969
Full Text here.

An excellent resource with very detailed discussions of bee morphology, behavior, and biology---from identification to genus, to in-depth coverage of (a surprisingly diverse variety of) nest architectures. Very readable, even though largely written at a technical level. Many helpful diagrams throughout. In particular, nearly every couplet of the key to genera is accompanied by illustrations for clarifying the characters and terms being discussed.

I find this book to be a very interesting and helpful reference...only wish it included all of western (and not just northwestern) America!

The Bees of the World, 2nd edition
By Charles D. Michener
The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007

The Bee Genera of North and Central America (Hymenoptera:Apoidea)
By Charles D. Michener, Ronald J. McGinley, Bryan N. Danforth
Smithsonian Books, 1994
This work (written in English and Spanish) describes 169 genera of the region. Two keys are inluded: to the families, and to the genera of each family of bees of North and Central America. I find the detailed, and labeled, anatomical drawings useful, even without a microscope. (Of course, specimen and microscope make the work far more useful!)

The Bees of the World
By Charles Duncan Michener
Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000

The Sting of the Wild: The Story of the Man Who Got Stung for Science
By Justin O. Schmidt
John Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, MD, 2016
This book is useful in dispelling myths about broad groups (particularly the oft-maligned Mutillidae). The Appendix contains the rankings for 83 species and includes all ranked species. It's also worth noting that this does mean that the majority of species are unranked, so caution should be taken in creating sweeping claims (as often done on rather erroneous Internet memes).

Molecular phylogenetics of Vespoidea indicate paraphyly of the superfamily...
By Pilgrim E.M., von Dohlen C.D., Pitts J.P.
Zoologica Scripta 37: 539–560, 2008
Full title: Molecular phylogenetics of Vespoidea indicate paraphyly of the superfamily and novel relationships of its component families and subfamilies

Abstract

Identifying the sister group to the bees: a molecular phylogeny of Aculeata with an emphasis on the superfamily Apoidea
By Debevec A.H., Cardinal S., Danforth B.N.
Zoologica Scripta 41: 527-535, 2012

Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera
By Peters et al.
Current Biology 27: 1–6, 2017

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