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Species Parnassius clodius - Clodius Parnassian - Hodges#4154

Parnassius clodius mated female - Parnassius clodius - female Parnassius clodius - female Top View - Parnassius clodius - female white and black butterfly - Parnassius clodius Parnassius clodius? - Parnassius clodius Possible Western White Butterfly - Parnassius clodius - male Mt Emily Parnassian - Parnassius clodius - female Butterfly - Parnassius clodius
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Papilionoidea (Butterflies and Skippers)
Family Papilionidae (Swallowtails, Parnassians)
Subfamily Parnassiinae
Tribe Parnassiini (Apollos or Parnassians)
Genus Parnassius
Species clodius (Clodius Parnassian - Hodges#4154)
Hodges Number
4154
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
First described in 1855 by Édouard Ménétries as Parnassius clodius
Numbers
Butterflies of America lists 9 subspecies in our area:
strohbeeni Sternitzky, 1945 "apparently extinct"
clodius Ménétriés, 1855
claudianus Stichel, 1907
pseudogallatinus Bryk, 1913
incredibilis Bryk, 1932
sol Bryk & Eisner, 1932
baldur W. H. Edwards, 1877
altaurus Dyar, 1903
menetriesii Hy. Edwards, 1877
There is also something called the "S Sierra Nevada Segregate", which is apparently not a full subspecies
Identification
The Clodius Parnassian is the only parnassian whose distribution is restricted to North America (1) [depending on recognition of American P. smintheus & P. behrii as full species or as part of P. phoebus].
P. clodius is very similar to P. felderi from Asia, and is closely related to Parnassius eversmanni, which is smaller, yellower, and which is found further north in Canada & Alaska and across Asia.
P. clodius is distinguished from the Sierra Nevada / Rocky Mountain / Phoebus Parnassians (Phoebus smintheus / behrii / phoebus) in having the dark antennae not ringed in white (sometimes faintly in gray), and in not having red or yellow spots on the front wings. The large dark spots in the discal cell of the front wing are gray to dark gray, not black. In the Sierra Nevada / Rocky Mountain / Phoebus Parnassians the antennae are alternately ringed white and black, there is usually red (or occasionally yellow instead) near the end of the discal cell (sometimes more obvious on the under side than the upper side), and the large dark spots in the discal cell are distinctly black. The shape of the sphragus on the females is also different.
Range
From California and Utah north into British Columbia and Alberta. Absent from Southern Rockies of south-central Wyoming, Colorado, and northern New Mexico.
Habitat
Forest edges at sea level in Northwest, cool mountains and shaded canyons and ridges in drier parts of range.(1)
Season
Overwinters as caterpillar in decaying leaf litter. Pupates in thin silken cocoon in spring.(1)
Food
Dicentra species serve as main host plants.(1); perhaps also Corydalis or other genera of family Fumariaceae
Remarks
The females of Parnassius have a sphragis that is present after mating. It is formed from a hard waxy secretion made by the male during mating and functions to prevent other males from mating with the female afterwards. See:
Print References
"Observations on the Biology of Parnassius clodius (Papilionidae) in the Pacific Northwest" by D. V. McCorkle & P. C. Hammond, Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 39(3), 1985 pp. 156-162.
Internet References
Enumeratio corporum animalium Musei imperialis Academiae scientiarum Petropolitanae, pt.1, p. 73    Ménétries' original description of the species (in French)
Works Cited
1.National Audubon Society Field Guide to Butterflies
Robert Michael Pyle. 1981. Knopf.