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Family Dilaridae - Pleasing Lacewings

Tiny four-winged insect. - Nallachius americanus - male Pleasing Lacewing - Nallachius americanus - male What is this? - Nallachius americanus - female What is this? - Nallachius americanus - female Unfamiliar bug - Nallachius americanus - male Pleasing lacewing, Nallachius americanus - Nallachius americanus - male ? - Nallachius americanus - male pleasing lacewing larva - Nallachius americanus
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Neuroptera (Antlions, Owlflies, Lacewings, Mantidflies and Allies)
Suborder Hemerobiiformia (Lacewings, Mantidflies and Allies)
Family Dilaridae (Pleasing Lacewings)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Dilaridae Newman 1853
Explanation of Names
From Old World genus Dilar Rambur, 1838. That genus was named after the Dílar region of Spain (1). Oswald (1998) gives origin:
From Dilar, a river flowing west from the western edge of the Sierra Nevada (mountains) of southern Spain,...
Numbers
2 spp. of a single genus in our area(2), >70 spp. in 4 genera worldwide(3)
    Nallachius americanus
    Nallachius pulchellus
Identification
Larvae very elongate:
     
Adults resemble small brown moths: wings widely-rounded, hairy; costal cross veins of wings not forked; male antennae pectinate, female filiform; female ovipositor long, recurved over abdomen:
      male N. americanus       female N. pulchellus
Our two species can be separated by details of wing venation; genitalia; and range...see keys and discussions in Penny(2002); Adams(1970); or Carpenter(4)(1940). Penny(5)(2002) gives detailed wing venation diagrams for N. americanus and N. pulchellus.
    Another wing venation diagram for N. americanus below:
       
Range
One widely distributed sp. (se. US to TX north to MI), and one restricted to AZ(2)
Habitat
Larvae live under bark; adults come to lights
Season
Adults from May to at least July
Food
Larvae are presumed to feed on beetles and ants (esp. eggs, larvae) under bark
Remarks
Rarely seen or collected
Relationships to other neuropteran families discussed in(6)
Print References
Adams, P. A. (1970). A review of the New World Dilaridae. Postilla 148:1-30. (Full Text)
Bowles, D.E., A. Contreras-Ramos, M. A. Sarmiento-Cordero, & M. L. Ferro (2015). New distributional records for pleasing lacewings (Neuroptera: Dilaridae, Nallachius spp.) in the Americas. Insecta Mundi 0406: 1–10 (Full Text)
Carpenter, F. M. (1940). A revision of the Nearctic Hemerobiidae, Berothidae, Sisyridae, Polystoechotidae and Dilaridae (Neuroptera). Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci. 74:193-260.(4)
Carpenter, F.M. (1947). Taxonomic Notes on the Dilaridae (Neuroptera). Psyche 54: 100-109 (Full Text)
Gurney, A. B. (1947) Notes on Dilaridae and Berothidae, with special reference to the immature stages of the Nearctic genera (Neuroptera). Psyche 54:145-169 (Full text)
Hoffman K.M. (1990) Distributional notes on North and Central American Dilaridae. Entomological News 101: 155-157. (Full Text)
Kuhar, T. P. (1995). A pleasing lacewing, Nallachius americanus (McLachan), from southwestern Virginia (Neuroptera: Dilaridae). Banister 5: 32–33. (Full Text)
MacLeod E.G., Spiegler P.E. (1961) Notes on the larval habitat and developmental peculiarities of Nallachius americanus (McLachlan) (Neuroptera: Dilaridae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 63: 281-286. (Full Text)
Monserrat V.J. (2005) Nuevos datos sobre algunas pequeñas familias de neurópteros (Insecta: Neuroptera: Nevrorthidae,. Osmylidae, Sisyridae, Dilaridae). Heteropterus Revista Entomologia 5: 1–26. (Full text, see pg. 18 for Nallachius)
Oswald, J. D., (1998). Annotated Catalogue of the Dilaridae (Insecta: Neuroptera) of the World. – Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 141: 115-128. [ISSN 0040-7496] (PDF).
Preny, T. J. & R. J. L. Jones (2017). A new family to Canada with the discovery of the Pleasing Lacewing Nallachius americanus (McLachlan) (Neuroptera: Dilaridae) at the Ojibway Prairie Complex in Windsor, Ontario. J. ent. Soc. Ont. 148: 39–41. (Full Text)
Sperka, C. L. (1972). Nallachius americanus (McLachlan) (Neuroptera: Dilaridae) in Kentucky. Entomological News 83: 282–283. (Full Text)
Stange, L. (1961). New records for the genus Nallachius Navas. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 38(2):144. (Full Text)
Steyskal, G.C. (1944) Notes on Nallichius americanus. Psyche 51:183-184 (Full text)
Works Cited
1.Bibliography of the Neuropterida (by J.D. Oswald)
2.Species catalog of the Neuroptera, Megaloptera, and Raphidioptera of America North of Mexico
Penny N.D., Adams P.A., Stange L.A. 1997. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 50: 39-114.
3.Neuropterida Species of the World catalogue (by J.D. Oswald)
4.A revision of the Nearctic Hemerobiidae, Berothidae, Sisyridae, Polystoechotidae and Dilaridae (Neuroptera)
Carpenter F.M. 1940. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sciences 74: 193-280.
5.A guide to the lacewings (Neuroptera) of Costa Rica
Norman D. Penny (author & editor), Kevin M. Hoffman, Martin Meinander, Victor J. Monserrat, Lionel A. Stange. 2002. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 53(12): 161-457.
6.Evolution of the Insects
David Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel. 2005.