Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
is used in Townes(1)
Medium to large wasps, not quite rivaling Pepsis or Hemipepsis, but most exceed 20 mm and some may attain lengths of almost 30 mm.
Size range of over 20mm to nearly 30mm is one of the best clues.
More technically they belong to the subfamily Pepsinae, tribe Pepsini which is defined by the following characters: groove in 2nd sternite, crease on side of 1st tergite marking off an epipleuron, serrate hind tibiae, at least a partially exposed labrum, concave sides of 1st tergite (look dorsally), spines on end of hind tibia of equal size and spacing.
Subtle wing venation and other characters used to separate genera and species, see Townes(1)
(1957) for this information (and keys plus brief species descriptions/discussions).
Species groups are separated as follows:(1)
fulvicornis group: brush on hind tibia interrupted, strong nipples on fore coxa, second sternite of temale with tubercles, all species in range with orange antennae
E. angusticeps, E. fulvicornis, & E. unifasciatus
magnus group: brush on hind tibia not interrupted, weak nipples on fore coxa, second sternite of female lacking tubercles, most species in range with black antennae (orange only in E. magnus)
E. aratus, E. austrinus E. magnus, & E. texanus
Species follow the following trends based on antennal and wing coloration:
Black antennae and black wings: E. austrinus fuscatus & E. texanus atripennis
Black antennae and orange wings: E. aratus, E. austrinus austrinus, & E. texanus texanus
Orange antennae and black wings: E. fulvicornis & E. magnus
Orange antennae and orange wings: E. angusticeps, E. unifasciatus californicus, E. unifasciatus cressoni, E. unifasciatus unifasciatus (apex)
The genus is found practically transcontinentally, but some species have restricted ranges.
Open areas, woodland edges; never found in deep woods.
found later in the season (late summer-early autumn)
Adults frequently visit flowers, especially umbellifers and Solidago spp. Adults provision a pre-existing cavity (or modification of a pre-existing) cavity generally with a Lycosid spider, though other similar families such as Agelenids are also reported.
one generation per year in most of the US