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Genus Urophora

Fruit Fly? - Urophora cardui - male Urophora cardui on thistle - Urophora cardui Small Fly - Urophora quadrifasciata - female Tephritid fly, Urophora quadrifasciata - Urophora quadrifasciata Four-barred Knapweed Gall Fly - Urophora quadrifasciata - female Three larvae  - Urophora cardui Fly - Urophora cardui Rhagoletis - Urophora quadrifasciata
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Diptera (Flies)
No Taxon ("Acalyptratae")
Superfamily Tephritoidea
Family Tephritidae (Fruit Flies)
Subfamily Tephritinae
Tribe Myopitini
Genus Urophora
Explanation of Names
Urophora Robineau-Desvoidy 1830
Numbers
7 spp. in our area, ~60 spp. total(1)
Identification
Only one other genus in the family has vein CuA2 straight or bowed out towards the wing tip.
Range
native to the Palaearctic (all the spp. but one occur there), introduced as weed biocontrol agents to NA(1)(2)
Life Cycle
Some (all?) spp. overwinter in galls as third instar larvae
Remarks
Several spp. have been introduced as biocontrols of non-native thistles and knapweeds (including the Yellow Starthistle Gall Fly, U. sirunaseva). U. kasachstanica & U. xanthippe are planned for release in w. US to control Russian knapweed(2)(3)