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Subfamily Miracinae

wasp - Mirax - female wasp - Mirax - female Braconid ex Cameraria n. sp. - Mirax - female Centistidea ex grass-mining gracillariid - Mirax Braconid ex Chrysaster ostensackenella - Mirax - female Braconid ex Chrysaster ostensackenella - Mirax - female Braconid ex Cameraria corylisella - female Braconid ex Antispila ex Parthenocissus
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon ("Parasitica" (parasitic Apocrita))
Superfamily Ichneumonoidea (Braconids and Ichneumons)
Family Braconidae (Braconid Wasps)
Subfamily Miracinae
Pronunciation
meer ah SIGH nee
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Until about 1981, Miracinae had been considered part of Microgastrinae (Whitfield, J.B. 1997. Subfamily Miracinae. In:(1)
Numbers
In the Nearctic, only 1 genus in the subfamily, Mirax. There is one subgenus: (Mirax (Centistidea)). Many species world-wide.
Size
about 1.5 - 3 mm.
Identification
T-shaped or Y-shaped structure on 2nd metasomal tergite
Wings with fore wing vein RS+M incomplete basally and no 2nd submarginal cell
Range
world wide
Food
parasitoids of leaf-mining micro-Lepidoptera in families Gracillariidae, Heliozelidae, Lyonetiidae, Nepticulidae and Tischeriidae
(Valerio, A. 2007. Miracinae Haliday 1834 In: Tree of life project
Whitfield, J.B. 1997. Subfamily Miracinae. In:(1))
Remarks
Females of this subfamily inject POLYDNAVIRUSES into the host during oviposition. These virus particles compromise the host immune system, protecting the parasitoid progeny. Click here for more information on this fascinating example of mutualism.
See Also
For more information on polydnaviruses, also see online articles (2) and (3).
Internet References
Valerio, Alejandro. 2007. Family Miracinae. In: Tree of life project. http://tolweb.org/Mirax/23453
Works Cited
1.Manual of the New World Genera of the Family Braconidae (Hymenoptera)
Wharton, R.A., P.M. Marsh, M.J. Sharkey (Eds). 1997. International Society of Hymenopterists.
2.Viral DNA delivers wasp's sting
Kwok, Roberta. 2009. Nature international weekly journal of science.
3.When parasitic wasps hijacked viruses: genomic and functional evolution of polydnaviruses
Herniou, E.A., E. Huguet, J. Theze, A. Bezier, G. Periquet, J.M. Drezen. 2013. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (Online ISSN: 1471-2970).