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Species Megatibicen grossus - Northern Dusk Singing Cicada

Cicada - Megatibicen grossus Scissor Grinder? - Megatibicen grossus - male Scissor Grinder? - Megatibicen grossus - male South Georgia Cicada - Megatibicen grossus Tibicen auletes? - Megatibicen grossus Cicada - Megatibicen grossus Huge cicada - Megatibicen grossus Cicada - Megatibicen grossus
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hemiptera (True Bugs, Cicadas, Hoppers, Aphids and Allies)
Suborder Auchenorrhyncha (True Hoppers)
Infraorder Cicadomorpha (Cicadas, Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, and Treehoppers)
Superfamily Cicadoidea (Cicadas)
Family Cicadidae (Cicadas)
Subfamily Cicadinae
Tribe Tacuini
Genus Megatibicen
Species grossus (Northern Dusk Singing Cicada)
Other Common Names
Northern Dusk-singing Cicada
Greater Dusk-calling Cicada
"Greater/Big/Giant Oak Cicada"
"Southern Oak Cicada"
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Megatibicen grossus (Fabricius, 1775)
= Tettigonia grossa Fabricius, 1775a
= Cicada auletes Germar, 1834
= Fidicina literata Walker, 1850
= Cicada sonora Walker, 1850
(For full nomenclatural history, see here)
Size
circa 45 mm body length
Identification
The following information is nomenclaturally outdated:
T. auletes is our LARGEST EASTERN Tibicen SPECIES.
In fact, it appears to be our largest and most robust North American Cicada (north of Mexico)!

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: Tibicen auletes
1) SIZE: Avg. 2.25-2.75 inches (up to ~3.0") in total length (incl. wings).
2) COLORATION: 2 color forms "Olive-Green/Olive-Taupe-Tan" or "Rust/Reddish-brown"
In the reddish color form, the wing veins are also characterized by being a deep reddish-brown. Unlike resonans the wings are broader and the cicada is typically more pruinose (i.e. well-developed white bands on the abdomen)
The pronotum of these cicadas is usually olive or taupe (rarely reddish) with a well developed central pattern
3) PRUINOSITY: These cicadas often look as though they are molded or have been dusted in "powdered sugar". No other US species is so pruinose (NOTE: This white wax will wipe off and over time, esp. in older specimens, much of the white can be lost! Reduced white wax often changes the general appearance of these insects)
4) EYES: when alive/fresh, the eyes are a light - often described as a sandy tan, grey-tan or rarely purplish-grey or purplish-tan.
6) VENTER: Pruinose / No dark pigmentation
7) MALES: oblique round olive-yellow colored opercula (rarely reddish-tan in color)



Frequently confused with and closely related to T. resh & T. resonans. There are a couple sites on the web exhibiting such misidentifications based on similarity of appearance and call (i.e. specimens identified as auletes, esp. those from central Florida, are often misidentifications and representative of Tibicen resonans).
T. resh

T. resonans


Very large (45 mm body length, about 65 mm to wing tips) and very pruinose.
Body length: 1.75-2.0"
Incl. wings: 2.5-3.0"

The call might best be described as follows:...There is a "winding up phase".... rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr ... followed by a "Dirrrrrrrrrrr....Dirrrrrrrr...Dirrr-Dirrr-Dirrr-Dirrr-Dirrr-..etc. before winding down with an often prolonged croaky Dirrrrrrrr...rrrrr..rrrrr...."
Range
e US (TX-FL-NJ-KS) - Map (1)

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Despite the common name, this cicada is most common across the South.
Extreme n. Florida ("the Highlands"), Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, South Carolina, North Carolina & Virginia

Moderately abundant in the Mid-West: Mississippi River Basin
Moderately abundant in the Mid-Atlantic: incl. Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey & New York
RARE in New England: incl. Connecticut & Massachusetts
Habitat
Reported to be oak woodlands.
Rarely associated with other plant communities, however, oaks are typically near by.
Season
Late summer.
July-September (North Carolina).
July-November (Gulf States & northern Florida).
Food
Oaks, Quercus sp.
Life Cycle
eggs usually laid in dead twigs, wood or bark
(occasionally eggs will be laid in living stems and twigs)

eggs hatch and nymphs burrow into the soil

nymphs feed on the sap in roots for several years (prefer oaks, Quercus spp.)

Final instar nymphs emerge and develop into winged adults (emergence for this species usu. occurs at night - into early morning)
Remarks
Cicada auletes Germar was recently (Sanborn, 2023) found to be a synonym of Tettigonia grossa Fabricius. Since T. grossa is the older name, it takes priority.

Replaced by Megatibicen resh in western Gulf States (Louisiana & Texas)
Replaced by M. resonans in Pine dominated habitats across the southeast (east of the Miss. Riv.)

The calls of Megatibicen resh, M. resonans and M. grossus are very similar and frequently confused with one another.

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M. grossus is the largest cicada in the eastern USA!
Characteristically, M. grossus in the South is a dark olive green with some tans and browns overlaid with a heavy dusting of white wax, giving it a powdered appearance.

It is closely related to Megatibicen resonans which it replaces in the southern hardwood forests. Although both species are sympatric across much of the resonans range, the two seem to have preferences in host and habitat specifics (resonans w/pine and grossus w/oak).

When teneral, M. grossus is usually a bright blue-green or mint-green turning to dark olive and tan as they sclerotize (harden).
NOTE: A rare exception involves the red color from which is usually salmon-pink when teneral. This red-brown color morph of auletes is easily confused with Megatibicen resonans; however, as with most auletes, these cicadas are typically very pruinose and the wings are a bit broader by comparison.
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Frequently confused and closely related - T. auletes, T. resh & T. resonans.
T. auletes is our LARGEST EASTERN Tibicen SPECIES.

T. resh

T. resonans
Print References
Brimley, p. 86, lists for July-September in eastern North Carolina. (2)
Sanborn, A.F. (2023) Resolving taxonomic issues of cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) including new combinations, new synonymies, and revised status, with updates on the diversity of the Brazilian cicada fauna and new records for four South American countries. Zootaxa, 5318(3), 339–362. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5318.3.2
Works Cited
1.Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)
2.Insects of North Carolina
C.S. Brimley. 1938. North Carolina Department of Agriculture.