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Genus Magicicada - Periodical Cicadas

Periodic Cicada (Magicicada septendecim) mating - Magicicada septendecim - male - female cicadas - Magicicada Periodical Cicada - Magicicada septendecim_2287 - Magicicada septendecim cicada nymph turrets - Magicicada Magicicada tredecim - female Brood XIX Periodical Cicada 2011 - Magicicada tredecula - female Adult Cicada Emerged  - Magicicada Magicicada - Magicicada septendecim
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hemiptera (True Bugs, Cicadas, Hoppers, Aphids and Allies)
Suborder Auchenorrhyncha (Free-living Hemipterans)
Superfamily Cicadoidea (Cicadas, Leafhoppers, and Treehoppers)
Family Cicadidae (Cicadas)
Subfamily Cicadettinae
Genus Magicicada (Periodical Cicadas)
Other Common Names
17-year locusts, 13-year locusts. (Note that true locusts are grasshoppers.)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Magicicada W.T. Davis, 1925. (See Remarks for discussion of taxonomy.)
Explanation of Names
Presumably from Latin magi(s) more, to a greater extent, plus Latin cicada, a cicada or tree-cricket (1) (Latin Dictionary). (Most members of this genus were originally placed in Cicada Linnaeus, 1758.)
Numbers
Checklist of Cicadas North of Mexico, and magicicada.org list 7 species.
17-year species:
Magicicada septendecim (Linnaeus, 1758)
Magicicada cassinii (Fisher, 1851)
Magicicada septendecula Alexander and Moore, 1962
13-year species:
Magicicada tredecim (Walsh and Riley, 1868)
Magicicada neotredecim Marshall and Cooley, 2000
Magicicada tredecassini Alexander and Moore, 1962
Magicicada tredecula Alexander and Moore, 1962
See Remarks and Life cycle below on relationships among the 13-year and 17-year species.
Size
M. septendecim, tredecim: 27-30 mm body length, wingspan to 76 mm (2)
M. cassini, decula, tredecassini, tredecula: smaller, body length 20-28 mm (magicicada.org)
Identification
Coloration distinctive: body black, red to orangish-red eyes, yellow-orange wing veins. Noted for mass-emergence of adults and the formation of choruses of singing males on a 17-year or 13-year period. Unmistakable as a genus--details of underside of abdomen (and male courtship song) can help identify species.
Range
Eastern North America. 17-year broods are more northern (below, left), 13-year broods more southern (below, right):
  
Habitat
Deciduous forests
Season
Adults fly in late spring, typically late April to early June; generally earlier than other cicada genera.
Food
Adults, as well as nymphs, feed on sap of deciduous trees.
Life Cycle
Unique life-cycle, with almost all individuals emerging as adults after 13-year or 17-year period as nymphs. Members of a given brood in a particular area tend to emerge over a very short period, resulting in high population densities for a limited time. Males form huge "choruses" in deciduous trees--the numbers are so great that the noise can be painful to human ears.
There are four species with 13-year and three species with 17-year life cycles. The 13-year species are more southern, the 17-year species more northern. There are a number of broods, or "year-classes", whose members emerge in the same year in the same geographic area. (Specifically, there are currently 12 broods of 17-year cicadas, and 3 broods of 13-year cicadas, with some additional broods known historically that appear to be extinct--see magicicada.org.) Entomologists have a standard numbering system using Roman Numerals to designate these broods (Marlatt, 1907). A given brood typically contains members of all three species with the same life-cycle (13-year or 17-year). The brood populations appear to be relatively stable, and several have been tracked via historical records--in one case, (brood XIV, a 17-year brood) back to 1634 (Lyche, Periodical Cicadas).
There are various hypotheses for the length of the life-cycle (13 or 17 years). Prime number-based cycle may help the cicadas to evade tracking by cycling populations of predators and/or parasites. In addition, populations may converge on prime number-length cycles due to statistical effects (Cox and Carleton, 1998; Goles et al., 2001; Yoshimura, 1997).
Remarks
There are three sets of sibling species within this genus, indicated by the species name suffixes: -decim, -cassini, and -decula. Each group has both 17-year and 13-year cycling populations, and these are traditionally treated as separate species. The closest relative of each Magicicada species is/are its relative(s) with the alternate life cycle (magicicada.org). The groups are:
Magicicada septendecim (17-year) <--> Magicicada tredecim (13-year, widespread), Magicicada neotredecim (13-year, limited range)
Magicicada cassini (17-year) <--> Magicicada tredecassini (13-year)
Magicicada septendecula (17-year) <--> Magicicada tredecula (13-year)
An alternative interpretation of these relationships is that there are but three species (more-or-less) in the genus, with differing life-cycle forms for each. This is an ongoing area of research--see magicicada.org for a discussion.
The two -decula species seem to be much less common than the -decim and -cassini species.
See Also
Okanagana species--some with similar coloration, though lacking red eyes
Print References
Alexander, R. D., and T. E. Moore. 1962. The evolutionary relationships of 17-year and 13-year cicadas, and three new species (Homoptera, Cicadidae, Magicicada). Univ. of Mich. Mus. Zool. Misc. Pub. 121: 1-59 (PDF).
Cox, R. T., and C. E. Carlton. 1998. A commentary on prime numbers and life cycles of periodical cicadas. Am. Nat. 152: 162-164 (abstract).
Goles, E., Schulz, O. and Markus, M. (2001), Prime number selection of cycles in a predator-prey model. Complexity, 6: 33–38. doi: 10.1002/cplx.1040
Marlatt, C.L., 1907. The Periodical Cicada (archive.org link)
Sanborn, A.F., and P.K. Phillips. 2013. Biogeography of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of North America, North of Mexico. Diversity 5(2): 166–239. (3)
Simon, C. 1988. Evolution of 13- and 17-year periodical cicadas. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 34: 163-176.
Yoshimura, J. 1997. The evolutionary origins of periodical cicadas during ice ages. Am. Nat. 149: 112-124 (abstract).
Internet References
Univ. Michigan--excellent life history discussion, very spiffy table of broods (link updated 1 May 2011)
Mating call sound files for both M. cassini and M. septendecula on Gerry Bunker's Brood X stragglers gallery page--scroll to the bottom
http://www.magicicada.org/--John R. Cooley's site, with extensive scientific information on this genus
Selected North American Cicada Species--Dr. Chris Simon, includes discussions of taxonomy, life cycles
2011 Brood XIX--here on BugGuide
Works Cited
1.Dictionary of Word Roots and Combining Forms
Donald J. Borror. 1960. Mayfield Publishing Company.
2.National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Insects and Spiders & Related Species of North America
Arthur V. Evans. 2007. Sterling.
3.Biogeography of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of North America, North of Mexico.
Sanborn, A.F., and P.K. Phillips. 2013. Diversity 5: 166–239.