Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Reuter 1888, Rhytidilomia
Stål 1872 (valid subgenus)(1)
19 spp. in 2 subgenera in our area [10 spp. reach Canada(2)
], 23 total (with just 3 Old World spp. and one sp. not known outside Mexico)
most species broadly oval, green to brownish or almost black, with pale whitish or yellow margin on pronotum and elytra; scutellum long & triangular, sometimes with 3 callosities (bumps) along base, and the tip usually pale or contrasting in color; membrane at apex of forewing often clear or translucent
Key to sayi
-group spp. provided in(3)
Holarctic; most diverse in NA, esp. in w. US(3)
; only C. dismalia
(VA; extremely rare), C. persimilis, C. saucia, & C. senilis
occur in the east; C. belfragii
is [mid]western (IL-MB-CA)
nymphs and adults feed on a variety of herbaceous plants, crops, and fruit trees (can become a commercial pest)
Here's our best interpretation of the life cycle for Chlorochroa:
(corrections may be necessary)
eggs and hatchlings, 1st instar
- green with white apex
- conspicuous scutellar median longitudinal yellow stripe
- usually with a white apex, costal margin of the corium whitish
- gray or black in southern individuals and olive-green in northern individuals, pale orange to red apex, costal margin of the corium and connexivum pale orange to red
- deep bodied shape and a color ranging from green to purplish black, the anterolateral margins of its pronotum thickened and reflexed
- three white spots and white apex
- scutellum with three distinct callosites at base and a pale apex
- basally green scutellum with a yellow apical half, a distinctive and rare species
D.B. Thomas's pers. comm. to =v=:
"Definitive species differences are in the male genitalia -- leaving 50% of all Chlorochroa to be identified by gestalt. The key species is C. ligata. It is black in the south, green in the north, and in the transitional area it is sort of purplish-green. There are some other clues, but these are not always visible in the photo. Geography helps narrow it down.
Some very rare species are here, C. opuntiae, C. lineata and C. kanei. Wish I had been there. I have never personally collected any of these three." (6.x.09)
"The bad bug is C. ligata. It is nearly black in the southern latitudes (Mexico, Texas), but becomes leafy green at the northern end of its range (Canada and northern tier of states). In the middle one sees gray specimens. Also, specimens from further south will have red margins, those in the north with yellow margins.
"A similar latitudinal color pattern is found in C. kanei which only occurs in the Sierra Nevada Mountain range. So in California they are purple. But as one gets into the Cascades one encounters greenish purple specimens.
"The male pygophore of C. ligata is distinctive and sets it off from the other species. But green females are hard to distinguish.
"C. sayi and C. uhleri have very narrow exocoria. C. ligata and the others have broad exocoria. The complex of five related species which are typically green with broad exocoria are distributed as follows: C. persimilis in the eastern deciduous forest, C. granulosa in the intermountain great basin, C. congrua in the Rocky Mountains, C. kanei in the Sierra Nevada, and C. rossiana on the Pacific Coast. They are distinguished by details in the male genitalia. For females (and photos) I rely a lot on distribution.
"As far as seasonality, it would not surprise me if over-wintering specimens are darker (less green) than the summer generations, as Jay McPherson showed with Thyanta. But our knowledge there is imperfect." (8.vii.10)
, the tips of hemelytra are more pointed, and no conspicuous pale margin on the pronotum and hemelytra.