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Family Stratiomyidae - Soldier flies

Fly on Euonymus - Stratiomys norma - male Interesting little fly on Shasta Daisy - Nemotelus kansensis - male Soldier Fly- East Clubhouse Beach, Monroe County, Fl - Hedriodiscus - female fly - Sargus decorus Robber Fly - Adoxomyia subulata whatsit Psellidotus texasiana? - Psellidotus - female Fly - Ptecticus trivittatus
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Diptera (Flies)
No Taxon (Orthorrhapha)
Infraorder Stratiomyomorpha
Family Stratiomyidae (Soldier flies)
Explanation of Names
Stratiomyidae Latreille 1802
see Stratiomys; the common name refers to the bold markings resembling military uniforms(1)
Numbers
>250 spp. in ~40 genera in our area(2), ~2,700 spp. in >380 genera worldwide(3)
Overview of our fauna (* –taxa not yet in the guide; classification adapted from (4)):
Family Stratiomyidae
Subfamily Chiromyzinae Inopus
Subfamily Stratiomyinae
Size
2-18 mm(2) [up to 28 mm worldwide(5)]
Identification
Often superficially resemble wasps in appearance and behavior. Adults vary widely in color and shape. Wings at rest are folded scissorlike across the abdomen. Antennae characteristic in having a long terminal segment which, when bent, gives a flagged appearance:

However, many soldier flies have aristate antennae. They are recognized by their wing venation; the branches of R are rather heavy and are crowded together toward the costal margin of the wing, and the discal cell is small.

Larvae are elongate, torpedo-shaped and may be flattened, with the skin or exoskeleton of some species firm and somewhat tough. Head is generally small and narrower than the body. The body bears no legs or other prominent features except body spines, although aquatic species may possess a rosette of hairs on the end of their bodies that is used to float on the surface of water to gain access to air and to trap air bubbles that are used for respiration while the larvae are submerged.
larvae treated in(6)
Range
worldwide and throughout NA; by far most diverse in the Neotropics (~1000 spp.)(5)
Habitat
Larvae in a variety of situations, but mostly associated with decaying plant matter from leaf litter to rotting fruits; some (esp. Pachygastrinae) under bark of fallen trees; larvae of Nemotelinae and Stratiomyinae are aquatic (various wet habitats: ponds, rivers, tree holes, seepage areas). Adults often found on leaves in sunny forest patches; some (particularly Stratiomyinae and some Clitellariinae) frequent flowers; adults of Sarginae and Hermetiinae usually found near larval food sources(5)
Food
Aquatic larvae feed on algae, decaying organic matter or on other aquatic organisms
Life Cycle
Pupation occurs in the last larval skin(2)
Internet References
(7)
Works Cited
1.Insects: Their Natural History And Diversity: With a Photographic Guide to Insects of Eastern North America
Stephen A. Marshall. 2006. Firefly Books Ltd.
2.American Insects: A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico
Ross H. Arnett. 2000. CRC Press.
3.Order Diptera Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang Z.-Q. (ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification...
Pape T., Blagoderov V., Mostovski M.B. 2011. Zootaxa 3148: 222–229.
4.A world catalog of the Stratiomyidae (Insecta: Diptera)
Woodley N.E. 2001. North American Dipterists' Society. Washington, DC. 475 pp.
5.Manual of Central American Diptera
Brian V. Brown et al. 2009. NRC Research Press.
6.Soldier fly larvae in America north of Mexico
McFadden M.W. 1967. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 121: 1-72.
7.Bayless K. Stratiomyidae (in The Tree of Life Web Project)