Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Syngrapha abstrusa Eichlin & Cunningham, 1978
Phylogenetic sequence #
Eichlin & Cunningham (1978) listed the forewing length 13-15 mm. (2)
cannot be reliably separated using DNA barcoding, PLoS ONE 12(6): e0178548; Supplementary Table S8 (3)
. Examiantion of genitalia is usually required.
"... In general, abstrusa is a little smaller than alias, the central silver spots usually are separated, the pattern seems more reticulated than in alias and the pale areas have a slight violet tint, whereas alias averages larger, the silver spots usually are fused, and often there is a brownish patch in the medial area just beyond and below the silver patch. The male genitalia are different and the differences can often be seen without dissection if the two valves are a little protruding, or separated slightly, so you can brush away the scales and look between the valves. The long clasper almost reached the dorsal margin of the valve, whereas in alias it is hard to find because if your brushing the tails because it's so small. Also the end of the valve is more foot-shaped with a tiny "neck" so it often breaks when you brush the tails, unlike in abstrusa." - C. Schmidt & D. Lafonataine (pers. comm., 03/5/2018)
Eichlin & Cunningham (1978) reported Ontario, Maine, New Hampshire, Michigan, and Wisconsin. (2)
E.H. Strickland Museum reportes south through the Rockies to northern New Mexico. In the east south to New Jersey and Ohio.
E.H. Strickland Museum reports dry coniferous forests.
E.H. Strickland Museum states the larvae have been reared on Englemann spruce (Picea englemanni), White spruce (Picea glauca) and Jack pine (Pinus banksiana). Adults nectar at fireweed.
* abstrusa (June) usually on the wing earlier than alias (July-August) and generally found in drier environments (E.H. Strickland Museum).
Eichlin, T.D. & H.B. Cunningham 1978. The Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of America north of Mexico, emphasizing genitalic and larval morphology. USDA Tech. Bulletin
1567: 1-122. (2)
Lafontaine, J.D. & R.W. Poole 1991. The Moths of America North of Mexico, Fascicle 25.1
. The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation. p. 114; plate 3, figs. 31-33. (4)
Zahiri R., J.D. Lafontaine, B.C. Schmidt, J.R. deWaard, E.V. Zakharov, P.D.N. Hebert, 2017. Probing planetary biodiversity with DNA barcodes: The Noctuoidea of North America. PLoS ONE, 12(6): e0178548.