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Family Drosophilidae - Vinegar Flies

Vinegar Fly Vinegar Fly - Stegana 6007865 - Chymomyza amoena Spelunking Flies small fly Veronica fly - Scaptomyza pallida Drosophila immigrans? - Drosophila immigrans - male Spittlebug Fly pupae - Cladochaeta
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Diptera (Flies)
No Taxon ("Acalyptratae")
Superfamily Ephydroidea
Family Drosophilidae (Vinegar Flies)
Other Common Names
Pomace Flies; Fruit Flies
Explanation of Names
Drosophilidae Rondani 1856
Numbers
~180 spp.(1) in 18 genera of 2 subfamilies in our area(2), ~4,000 spp. in ~80 genera total(3)
Size
2.5-4.5 mm
Identification
Usually yellowish in color. Wings with a break in costal vein near junction of subcosta. Eyes usually red.
Keys to species (excluding Drosophila) in(4)
Keys to genera and species of Drosophila) (5)
Lauxaniidae versus Drosophilidae: The easiest character to look for is the strong bristles on the frons (top of the head right above the eye). In most of our lauxaniids, there will be two strong bristles above each eye, both facing backwards. Drosophilids usually have one strong bristle facing backward, often a weaker one facing backward just in front of the strong one, but usually a fairly strong one facing forward as well. Many drosophilids have long rays on the arista of the antenna, while in most lauxaniids the arista is bare or has very short hairs. (Comment by Terry Wheeler)

Helpful notes. Go to Flickr and hover the mouse over the image:
Vinegar Fly
Habitat
Usually around decaying vegetation and fruit.
Food
Decaying fruit and fungi also fresh sap and nectar from flowers. Some are ectoparasitic or predaceous on mealybugs and small Homoptera.
Works Cited
1.Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects
Norman F. Johnson, Charles A. Triplehorn. 2004. Brooks Cole.
2.American Insects: A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico
Ross H. Arnett. 2000. CRC Press.
3.Order Diptera Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang Z.-Q. (ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification...
Pape T., Blagoderov V., Mostovski M.B. 2011. Zootaxa 3148: 222–229.
4.The Drosophilidae of the Nearctic region, exclusive of the genus Drosophila
Wheeler, M. R. 1952. Univ. Tex. Publs 5204: 162-218.
5.A Review of the Species of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and Genera of Drosophilidae of Northeastern North America
Miller, Meredith E., Stephen A. Marshall, and David A. Grimaldi. 2017. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification.