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Genus Drosophila

Rotting tree dweller 2 (fly) - Drosophila - female Vinegar Fly - Drosophila Essigfliege - Drosophila repleta Small fly - Drosophila repleta Drosophila what is it - Drosophila repleta Fly ~3mm - Drosophila busckii Drosophila immigrans? - Drosophila
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Diptera (Flies)
No Taxon ("Acalyptratae")
Superfamily Ephydroidea
Family Drosophilidae (Vinegar Flies)
Subfamily Drosophilinae
Genus Drosophila
Explanation of Names
Drosophila Fallén 1823

From Greek meaning dew-lover.
Numbers
Nearctica lists 113 species.
Identification
Helpful notes. Go to Flickr and hover the mouse over the image:
Vinegar Fly
Remarks
With around 800 ommatidia on each eye.
Taxonomic structure contributed by MA Ebbert :

I. Subgenus Drosophila
A. Quinaria section
1. Funebris group: funebris (cosmopolitan), macrospina
2. Immigrans group: immigrans (cosmopolitan)
3. Quinaria group: quinaria, falleni, recens, palustris
4. Testacea group: putrida
5. Tripunctata group: tripunctata
B. Guttifera group: guttifera
C. Virilis-repleta radiation
1. Melanica group: melanica, paramelanica, nigromelanica, micromelanica
2. Repleta radiation: repleta (cosmopolitan), hydei (cosmopolitan)
3. Robusta group: robusta
4. Virilis group: virilis, americana, texana
II. Subgenus Sophophora
A. Melanogaster group: melanogaster (cosmopolitan), simulans (cosmopolitan)
B. Obscura group: algonquin, affinis, narragansett, athabasca
III. Subgenus Dorsilopha: one species, busckii (cosmopolitan)

...

Features helpful in identifying species of this genus
Mesonotum, dorsal view, showing number of rows of hairs, orientation and presence of various bristles and colors patterns.
Banding patterns on the dorsal abdomen: whether the bands are interrupted along the mid-line, and whether there are any obvious spotting patterns.
Foreleg to see sex combs.
Wing coloration: clear versus clouding at cross veins or tips.
Internet References
NCBI List of species and species groups.