Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Diptera (Flies)
No Taxon ("Acalyptratae")
Family Conopidae (Thick-headed Flies)
Explanation of Names
Adults resemble solitary wasps in general shape and color. They have a petiolate abdomen (i.e. with a long, narrow second segment...followed by broader, shorter ones). The proboscis
is long, straight and needle-like, projecting forward well beyond the face. The antennae are also long and straight, positioned close together, and point forwardly-upward (i.e. are porrect
are often confused with Physoconops
, which they closely resemble...for details on distinguishing the two, consult the "See Also"
Key to New World Physocephala
species in Camras (1996)...available online here
Williston's 1885 key to Physocephala
still works well in our area (i.e. the U.S. & Canada) with these two caveats 1) his affinins
is now synonymized under texana
; 2) the species P. floridana
, described in 1957, is not included in the key...it comes out under P. tibialis
there. See the P. floridana info page
for help in distinguishing those two species.
Terms commonly used to describe and identify Physocephala species are illustrated and defined in the following two labelled image posts:
A summary of key characters, with their various states and associated species, are listed below. Note that some species exhibit variable states for certain characters, and so may be listed more than once per line:
discal cell: hyaline = clear (furcillata, marginata, texana, burgessi); infuscate = darkened (tibialis, sagittaria, floridana). cheeks: solidly dark black (tibialis, furcillata, floridana); reddish (burgessi); yellow-to-whitish (texana); or dark brown on fore and aft edges, with a yellow spot in middle (sagittaria, marginata, texana). facial grooves: black (tibialis, floridana); dark brown (sagittaria, marginata); or pale white to yellowish (furcillata, burgessi, texana). facial keel: black, at least near top (tibialis, floridana); pale brown to yellow (sagittaria, marginata); or pale white to yellowish (texana, burgessi, furcillata). humeral spots: white to yellowish pollinose (="waxy-dusted") and widely dash-shaped (marginata, sagittaria, texana); narrower, inset from lateral edges, and faintly white pollinose...or absent (tibialis, furcillata); red...not pollinose (burgessi, floridana). scutellum: black or dark brown (tibialis, furcillata, sagittaria); reddish (marginata, burgessi, texana, floridana, sagittaria). vertex: black or very dark brownish (tibialis, furcillata, marginata, sagittaria); reddish (burgessi, texana, floridana, sagittaria); or yellowish-brown (sagittaria). 1st antennal segment: less than half as long as 3rd antennal segment (furcillata, burgessi); roughly similar in length to 3rd segment (tibialis, sagittaria, marginata, floridana, texana). costal cell: hyaline or lighter colored than adjacent cells (furcillata, burgessi); dark and concolorous with adjacent cells (marginata, floridana); not consistent...usually concolorous with adjacent darkened cells, but often lighter, or even hyaline (tibialis, sagittaria, texana). "T"-shaped marking on frons: black and fairly wide (tibialis, furcillata, marginata, sagittaria, floridana); reddish brown and fairly wide (sagittaria); dark to light reddish brown, and relatively thinner (texana, burgessi); or entirely yellowish (texana).
Worldwide, incl. most of our area
Adults visit flowers during the day.
Adults fly from late spring to late summer.
Larvae parasitize various Apoidea/Sphecoidea & Vespidae; P. tibialis has been recorded parasitizing workers of the bumble bee species Bombus bimaculatus, B. dimidiata and B. impatiens.
Adults feed on nectar.
Adult female Physocephala oviposit by pouncing on a hymenopteran host while its in flight or visiting flowers. Oviposition is accomplished by using a rapid opposing-motion of the female's theca and plate-like 7th abdominal segment to pry open the host's tergites (somewhat like a "can-opener") and then insert an egg into the abdomen.
The egg subsequently hatches within the host and begins feeding...first on haemolymph, and later on internal tissues...eventually killing the host (i.e. it's a parasitoid). This usually takes 10-12 days, though a study in Alberta showed that bumble bees parasitized by P. texana
had the same lifespan as unparasitized individuals (Otterstatter et al. 2002)(2)
Bumblebee hosts have been documented to bury themselves under dirt before dying, a behavior presumably induced by the Physocephala larva, which benefits thereby from having a safer underground environment in which to overwinter before pupating and eclosing the following spring.
As with all members of Schizophora
, the emerging adult rhythmically inflates its ptilinum to break out of its puparium...and, in Physocephala
, also the host's corpse, as well as to dig to the surface. (Video of emerging P. tibialis
, from Gibson et. al.(2014).)
Once there, it finds a place to perch while it expands its wings (by pumping haemolymph into them) and "cures" (i.e. dries and hardens its exoskeleton).
Adults then go about mating, and females seek out hosts...repeating the cycle.
When at rest Physocephala (like many conopids) often wave their forelegs above their heads...presumably to simulate the appearance of the common behavior of hymenopteran antennal movements...and thus re-inforce their protection through wasp-mimicry. Photos will often capture conopids with their forelegs held up in the air.
The most commonly seen genus of Conopidae(3)
Males and females are both dichoptic (i.e. have eyes widely separated). Females can be distinguished by the conspicuous bump below their abdomen called the theca, which males lack. The theca is attached to the 5th sternite, but is often flap-like and folded against the 4th sternite. It is used to help grasp and pry open the tergites of the the host insect while inserting an egg into the hosts abdomen.
A small group of genera in Syrphidae (tribe Cerioidini
) are often mistaken for Conopinae.
Within the subfamily Conopinae, Physoconops
closely resemble Physocephala
and the two genera are often confused. They can usually be distinguished by examining the wing venation
and the shape of the hind femora
Wing Venation In Physocephala, the anterior crossvein (denoted "r-m" in the diagram below), is located well beyond the middle of discal cell (denoted "dm"); and the discal cell is strongly "indented" just basad of the crossvien r-m. Note that the tiny crossvein bounding the discal cell at its base is usually hard to see, but it is always just beyond where the vein on the lower edge of the discal cell meets cell "cup" (cf. 2nd diagram below):
In Physoconops, the crossvein r-m is near or before the middle of cell dm; and the discal cell is typically less strongly indented basad of crossvein r-m, and often more-or-less straight along its upper edge:
Hind femora In Physocephala the the hind femur is irregularly thickened and widest in its basal portion:
In Physoconops, the hind femur has a more uniform thickness and is widest near the middle:
Note that the hind femur character is best employed with a profile view. From some angles the basal swelling in Physocephala may not be clearly apparent.
To be confident of an identification, it's best to have a number of characters available for verification, since some may be difficult to interpret (or even "not work", due to variation), or they may not be visible. While the above characters are the primary ones used to separate Physocephala and Physoconops in most keys, and are presumably the most consistent and dependable ones, the following additional characters are also useful in distinguishing these two genera:
1) Physocephala do not have ocelli, whereas Physoconops have very small ocelli located on a swelling at the vertex(4) [see comment here by Jeff Skevington]. 2) Most Physocephala have a sharply defined "T"-shaped marking on the frons, most Physoconops do not. 3) In Physoconops the last few tarsi on all legs are typically dark black and the pulvilli are large and yellow; whereas in Physocephala the tarsi are typically narrower, lighter reddish or yellowish, and the pulvilli and darker (with little or no yellow) and typically smaller. 4) In some (but not all!) Physoconops the 3rd antennal segment is noticeably much longer than it is in Physocephala. 5) In some (but not all!) Physoconops the female's theca is noticeably much longer than it is in Physocephala.
Camras S. (1957) A review of the New World Physocephala (Diptera: Conopidae)". Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 50:213-218.
Camras S. (1996) New information on the New World Physocephala
(Diptera: Conopidae). Ent. News 107: 104-112 (Full text
Gibson, J.F., Slatosky, A.D., Malfi, R.L., Rooulston, T., & Davis, S.E. (2014). Eclosion of Physocephala tibialis
(Say) (Diptera): Conopidae) from a Bombus
(Apidae: Hymenoptera) host: A video record J. ent. Soc. Ont. Volume 145: 49-58. (Full text
Malfi, R. L. & J. A. Walter, T. H. Roulston, C. Stuligross, S. McIntosh, & L. Bauer (2018). The influence of conopid flies on bumble bee colony productivity under different food resource conditions. Ecological Monographs, 88(4):653-671 (Abstract
Otterstatter M.C., Whidden T.L., Owen R.E. (2002) Contrasting frequencies of parasitism and host mortality among phorid and conopid parasitoids of bumble-bees. Ecol. Entomol. 27(2): 229-237.
Revista Brasileira de Entomologia
. Larval development of Physocephala
(Diptera, Conopidae) in the bumble bee Bombus morio
|2.||The Conopid Flies of California|
Sidney Camras and Paul D. Hurd, Jr. 1957. University of California Press.
|4.||Manual of Nearctic Diptera Volume 2|
Varies for each chapter; edited by J.F. McAlpine, B.V. Petersen, G.E. Shewell, H.J. Teskey, J.R. Vockeroth, D.M. Wood. 1987. Research Branch Agriculture Canada.