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Species Pandemis limitata - Three-lined Leafroller - Hodges#3594

Caterpillar on witch hazel - Pandemis limitata Three-lined Leafroller Moth -  Hodges#3594 - Pandemis limitata Three-lined Leafroller - Pandemis limitata Three-lined Leafroller - Pandemis limitata Moth-a-pillar - Pandemis limitata - female Pandemis limitata Pandemis limitata Pandemis limitata
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Tortricoidea (Tortricid Moths)
Family Tortricidae (Tortricid Moths)
Subfamily Tortricinae
Tribe Archipini
Genus Pandemis
Species limitata (Three-lined Leafroller - Hodges#3594)
Hodges Number
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Pandemis limitata (Robinson, 1869)
Tortrix limitata Robinson, 1869 (1)
Explanation of Names
Specific epithet from Latin meaning "limited," for the "basal patch, central fascia and costal spot dark brown, distinctly limited by lines of pale testaceous scales." (1)
Forewing length 7-12 mm, females larger than males. (2)
Adult - forewing varies from light to dark brown with prominent dark brown markings. The basal, median and upper postmedian lines are distinct and sharply defined with pale edging. The hindwing is white, often with the lower half grey. The larva is green with a green or brown thoracic shield and head. Distinct spots may be present on the lateral parts of the thoracic shield. (3)
Across Canada and the northern United States to the Rocky Mountain states, Washington and north coastal California. (2) E.H. Strickland Museum states range from British Columbia to Nova Scotia, south to Arizona, Texas, and Louisiana. (3)
Larvae are leafrollers on various deciduous trees, not conifers. Considered a pest on apple in New York. (2) See large list of recorded hosts at TortAI. (4)
Life Cycle
See TortAI. (4)
See Also
Pandemis lamprosana - Paul Dennehy comments, "The difference is in the dark patch near the FW apex. In limitata, the patch is a distinct crescent shape surrounded entirely by lighter color, but in lamprosana, the distal portion of the patch fades into the darker ground color toward the apex."
Many authors consider Pandemis canadana (Kearfott) a western race, at best. (2)
Print References
Robinson, C.T., 1869. Notes on American Tortricidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 2: 264. (1)
Works Cited
1.Notes on American Tortricidae.
Coleman T. Robinson. 1869. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 2: 261-288.
2.Moths of Western North America
Powell and Opler. 2009. UC Press.
3.University of Alberta Entomology Collection
4.Tortricids of Agricultural Importance
Todd M. Gilligan and Marc E. Epstein.
5.North American Moth Photographers Group
6.BOLD: The Barcode of Life Data Systems