Identification, Images, & Information
For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada

Subfamily Pteromalinae


The genus Mymaromella (Hymenoptera: Mymarommatidae) in North America, with a key to described extant species
By J.T. Huber, G.A.P. Gibson, L.S. Bauer, H. Liu, M. Gates
Journal of Hymenoptera Research 17(2): 175-194, 2008

The Wasps
By Howard Ensign Evans, Mary Jane West Eberhard
University of Michigan Press, 1970
A readable reference on wasp biology. Out of print, sometimes can be found used.

Parasitic Wasps
By Donald L. J. Quicke
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997

Solitary Wasps: Behavior and Natural History (Cornell Series in Arthropod Biology)
By Kevin M. O'Neill
Comstock Publishing, 2000
Contains information concerning the behavior of a variety of solitary wasps (e.g. sphecid, pompilid, and vespid wasps). This is not, however, an identification guide and this book does not treat what are considered parasitic wasps (e.g. chalcid and ichneumon wasps). Includes a number of summarizing tables as well as case studies of particular species.

Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera
By Peters et al.
Current Biology 27: 1–6, 2017

The Hymenoptera of Costa Rica
By Paul E. Hanson and Ian D. Gauld, editors
Oxford University Press, 1995
A comprehensive treatment of the biology, systematics, and diversity of Hymenoptera in Costa Rica. Keys to superfamilies, families, subfamilies and in many cases, genera are included. Given the high level of biodiversity of Hymenoptera in Costa Rica in comparison to most areas of the world, this is a valuable reference book for students of Hymenoptera in any part of the world.

Order Hymenoptera. In: Zhang Z-Q (ed) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classif. and survey of taxonomic richness
By Aguiar AP, Deans AR, Engel MS, Forshage M, Huber JT, Jennings JT, Johnson NF, Lelej AS, Longino JT, Lohrmann V, Mikó I, Ohl M.
Zootaxa 3703: 51–62, 2013

A review of the siricid woodwasps and their ibaliid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Siricidae, Ibaliidae) in the eastern United States
By Smith D.R., Schiff N.M.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 104: 174-194, 2002
Full title: A review of the siricid woodwasps and their ibaliid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Siricidae, Ibaliidae) in the eastern United States, with emphasis on the mid-Atlantic region
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