Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Campylenchia Stål, 1869
Explanation of Names
Enchenopa Amyot & Serville 1843
5 described spp. in our area (many more undescribed), 51 described species total
Enchenopa latipes (Say, 1824): transcontinental U.S. and Canada
Enchenopa permutata Van Duzee, 1908: western U.S. and Canada; Mexico:BS
Enchenopa sericea Walker 1851: AZ; Mexico to Argentina
Enchenopa binotata (Say, 1824): eastern U.S.
Enchenopa brevis Walker, 1851: IN, ON
undescribed members of the E. binotata-complex
E. binotata is found on Celastrus scandens. These names are provisional and based on designations from a few publications acknowledging these undescribed species.
Enchenopa on Betula: NB
Enchenopa on Carya: eastern U.S.
Enchenopa on Ceanothus americanus: eastern U.S. and Canada
Enchenopa on Cercis canadensis: eastern U.S.
Enchenopa on Halesia carolina: GA, SC
Enchenopa on Juglans cinerea: eastern U.S.
Enchenopa on Juglans nigra: eastern U.S.
Enchenopa on Liriodendron tulipifera: eastern U.S.
Enchenopa on Ptelea trifoliata: eastern U.S.
Enchenopa on Robinia pseudoacacia: eastern U.S.
Enchenopa on Sideroxylon lanuginosum: eastern U.S.
Enchenopa on Tilia americana: ON
Enchenopa on Viburnum lentago: eastern U.S.
Enchenopa on Viburnum prunifolium: eastern U.S.
possible undescribed members of the E. binotata-complex
these hoppers have not been formally acknowledged in any publication and so we cannot be 100% sure that these are distinct species. In addition to these, members of this complex have been observed on Agastache, Alnus, Asclepias, Cirsium, Cornus, Hemerocallis, Helianthus, Lespedeza, Lindera, Morus, Myrica, Platanus, Rubus, Rumex, Silphium, Solidago, Vitis, and Wisteria.
Enchenopa on Prunus
It is imperative that one obtains host plant information for members of the Enchenopa binotata-complex. The other species in our area are quite distinctive. Note the differences in form between E. latipes (transcontinental) and E. sericea (southwestern)
click on the figures below to be redirected to their sources
As stated above, there are a multitude of undescribed species in this genus which are present in our area; predominantly in the eastern U.S. and Canada and southwestern states. It is apparent that members of the Enchenopa binotata-complex are generally host-specific and determining the host of a few individuals can help aid in the identification of which undescribed species is observed. Comprehensive sampling and testing will need to be done to determine the identities and full range of hosts of the species in our areas as there are some hosts which are likely secondary to the main hosts. Different authors have acknowledged different undescribed species over the years. In the Enchenopa binotata-complex. Hamilton and Cocroft (2009) examined specimen series collected from Betula populifolia, Carya, Ceanothus, Celastrus, Cercis, Juglans cinerea, Juglans nigra, Liriodendron, Ptelea, Robinia, Sideroxylon, and Viburnum; the rare species Enchenopa brevis was reinstated to address specimens found on Dirca palustris and the common species on Celastrus was determined to be species Enchenopa binotata. Wallace & Deitz (2012) acknowledged most of the same undescribed species in their comprehensive checklist of nearctic treehoppers, but left out the species on Ceanothus and treated both of the species on Juglans as one species. Recordings of courtship calls and genetic analysis support the separation of the two Juglans species, which is followed here and observations of unique nymphs and egg masses on Ceanothus americanus lead us to acknowledging that as a separate species as well.
There are a number of likely different species in the southwest and nearctic Mexico with unknown hosts, although in Mexico there appear to be species in this complex feeding on Buddleja cordata and another on Verbesina olsenii. Based on observations, there appear to be multiple additional unacknowledged undescribed species in the eastern U.S. and Canada—notable are populations which feed on Prunus and others feeding on species of Rubus, Solidago, and Vitis, the last three possible being secondary hosts or results of opportunistic feeding.
There are a variety of other herbaceous and woody plants in the eastern U.S. and Canada which the complex has been observed on, listed in the "Numbers" section. Genetic work and observations of nymphs/egg masses will help determine whether these are distinct hosts.
A comparison of the nymph morphologies (Pratt & Wood, 1992) and courtship calls (Cocroft & Rodríguez, 2008) of members of the Enchenopa binotata-complex.
Images of nymphs for described and undescribed species below.
undescribed on Cercis canadensis
undescribed on Juglans nigra
possible undescribed on Prunus serotina
undescribed on Ptelea trifoliata
undescribed on Sideroxylon lanuginosum
undescribed on Viburnum prunifolium