Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Genera under what is now considered Exothecinae had been placed under Hormiinae in Wharton et al.
Mostly recognized by absence of characters associated with other cyclostome subfamilies as follows below (Whitfield, J.B. and R.A. Wharton. 1997. Subfamily Hormiinae. In:(1)
No spines on front tibia (as in Doryctinae)
Presence of occipital carina
, at least laterally, behind eyes (not completely absent
, as in Braconinae) (Whitfield & Wharton 1997. (1)
Occipital carina: a raised ridge around the area of the head behind the eyes. For a good graphic, see p. 99, PDF (Fortier 2009(2)
Some genera that attack sawflies (Shawiana, Xenarcha Foerster) are more commonly found in north temperate areas. There are 10 genera in the Holarctic, and found in North America.
larvae of other insects, including Lepidoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera (especially sawflies). As far as known, most of these species attack concealed hosts (leaf miners, leaf-rollers, leaf-tiers stem borers, seed borers, gall formers, or fungal borers). (Whitfield & Wharton 1997.(1)
An exception is species of Monitoriella
Hedqvist, which form galls, and thus are phytophagous.(Whitfield & Wharton 1997(1)
All are either known to be idiobiont ectoparasitoids
, or suspected to be such.(Whitfield & Wharton(1)
) Some, such as species in tribes Rhyssalini, Hormiini, Pambolini, and perhaps Hydrangeocolini are gregarious
Regarding the subfamilies Exothecinae and Hormiinae, Dr. Michael Sharkey wrote: "Both subfamilies are very wrong so to me it is not important which subfamily they go in. In the most recent phylogenetic analysis they are placed in an informal group called the Alysioid subcomplex, where they came out as sister to Opiinae (Alysiinae was not included in the analysis). They probably deserve their own subfamily." Therefore images that have been identified as belonging to either subfamily are placed here for the time being.
According to the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL), (http://eol.org/pages/12064953/names), under Exothecinae, the following genus names are listed: Colastes, Shawiana, Rhysipolis, Allobracon, Pambolus, Pseudophanomeris. Xenarcha. Under Hormiinae, (http://eol.org/pages/3772363/names), the following names are listed: Hormius, Monitoriella, Parahormius, Pentatermus, "Unclassified Hormiinae". This data from EOL was taken May, 2015.
Sharonowsky et al.
(2011) used Colastes
in their molecular phylogenetic analysis to represent Exothecinae, and Hormius
to represent Hormiinae. Both putative subfamilies fall into the cyclostome
assemblage of Braconidae. While placement of Hormiinae was weakly supported, there was strong support for Exothecinae's placement in a clade with Alysiinae and Opiinae.(3)