Identification, Images, & Information
For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada
Clickable Guide
Moths Butterflies Flies Caterpillars Flies Dragonflies Flies Mantids Cockroaches Bees and Wasps Walkingsticks Earwigs Ants Termites Hoppers and Kin Hoppers and Kin Beetles True Bugs Fleas Grasshoppers and Kin Ticks Spiders Scorpions Centipedes Millipedes

Upcoming Events

Information about the 2019 BugGuide Gathering in Louisiana, July 25-27

Discussion, insects and people from the 2018 gathering in Virginia, July 27-29

Photos of insects and people from the 2015 gathering in Wisconsin, July 10-12

Photos of insects and people from the 2014 gathering in Virginia, June 4-7.

Photos of insects and people from the 2013 gathering in Arizona, July 25-28

Photos of insects and people from the 2012 gathering in Alabama

Photos of insects and people from the 2011 gathering in Iowa


Subfamily Exothecinae-or-hormiinae - Exothecinae/Hormiinae

Parornix parasitoid - female Braconid parasitoid of Vaccinium-mining sawfly - Shawiana Braconid parasitoid of Vaccinium-mining sawfly - Shawiana Braconid ex Phytoliriomyza melampyga - female Braconid Wasp - male Braconid ex Caloptilia ex Vaccinium corymbosum - female Hormius - female Braconid wasp (likely Hormius) parasite of Three-spotted Skipper (Cymaenes tripunctus) larvae - Hormius
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon ("Parasitica" (parasitic Apocrita))
Superfamily Ichneumonoidea (Braconids and Ichneumons)
Family Braconidae (Braconid Wasps)
Subfamily Exothecinae-or-hormiinae (Exothecinae/Hormiinae)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Genera under what is now considered Exothecinae had been placed under Hormiinae in Wharton et al., 1997(1)
Most are less than 4 mm
Mostly recognized by absence of characters associated with other cyclostome subfamilies as follows below (Whitfield, J.B. and R.A. Wharton. 1997. Subfamily Hormiinae. In:(1))
No spines on front tibia (as in Doryctinae)
Presence of occipital carina, at least laterally, behind eyes (not completely absent, as in Braconinae) (Whitfield & Wharton 1997. (1))
Occipital carina: a raised ridge around the area of the head behind the eyes. For a good graphic, see p. 99, PDF (Fortier 2009(2))
Some genera that attack sawflies (Shawiana, Xenarcha Foerster) are more commonly found in north temperate areas. There are 10 genera in the Holarctic, and found in North America.
larvae of other insects, including Lepidoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera (especially sawflies). As far as known, most of these species attack concealed hosts (leaf miners, leaf-rollers, leaf-tiers stem borers, seed borers, gall formers, or fungal borers). (Whitfield & Wharton 1997.(1))
An exception is species of Monitoriella Hedqvist, which form galls, and thus are phytophagous.(Whitfield & Wharton 1997(1)
Life Cycle
All are either known to be idiobiont ectoparasitoids, or suspected to be such.(Whitfield & Wharton(1)) Some, such as species in tribes Rhyssalini, Hormiini, Pambolini, and perhaps Hydrangeocolini are gregarious.
Regarding the subfamilies Exothecinae and Hormiinae, Dr. Michael Sharkey wrote: "Both subfamilies are very wrong so to me it is not important which subfamily they go in. In the most recent phylogenetic analysis they are placed in an informal group called the Alysioid subcomplex, where they came out as sister to Opiinae (Alysiinae was not included in the analysis). They probably deserve their own subfamily." Therefore images that have been identified as belonging to either subfamily are placed here for the time being.

According to the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL), (, under Exothecinae, the following genus names are listed: Colastes, Shawiana, Rhysipolis, Allobracon, Pambolus, Pseudophanomeris. Xenarcha. Under Hormiinae, (, the following names are listed: Hormius, Monitoriella, Parahormius, Pentatermus, "Unclassified Hormiinae". This data from EOL was taken May, 2015.

Sharonowsky et al.(2011) used Colastes and Shawiana in their molecular phylogenetic analysis to represent Exothecinae, and Hormius to represent Hormiinae. Both putative subfamilies fall into the cyclostome assemblage of Braconidae. While placement of Hormiinae was weakly supported, there was strong support for Exothecinae's placement in a clade with Alysiinae and Opiinae.(3)
Internet References
Works Cited
1.Manual of the New World Genera of the Family Braconidae (Hymenoptera)
Wharton, R.A., P.M. Marsh, M.J. Sharkey (Eds). 1997. International Society of Hymenopterists.
2.A Revision of the Tetrasphaeropyx Ashm. Lineage of the Genus Aleiodes Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae)
Fortier, Joseph C. 2009. Magnolia Press.
3.Molecular phylogenetics of Braconidae (Hym.:Ichneumonoidea) based on multiple nuclear genes, and implications for classification
Sharonowsky B.J., Ashley P.G., Dowling P.G., Sharkey M.J. 2011. Systematic Entomology 36: 549-572.